Intimate partner violence (IPV) and emergency medicine intersect when individuals experiencing IPV present to emergency departments for medical care, either on their own or when brought in by law enforcement authorities for medical evaluation and social services. Coordination of care is required, with particular attention paid to the sensitive nature of the patient’s presentation and with an emphasis on trauma-informed care. Emergent medical needs must be balanced with concerns for the patient’s emotional well-being and the need for advocacy and social services. This supplement reviews best practices and evidence-based recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients who have experienced IPV, with a focus on the considerations for traumatic injuries in these patients.
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Following are the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors.
1. * Weil A, Elmore J, Kunins L. Intimate partner violence: epidemiology and health consequences. UpToDate. 2020. Updated August 24, 2022. Accessed April 1, 2023. (Review)
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11. * Yau RK, Stayton CD, Davidson LL. Indicators of intimate partner violence: Identification in emergency departments. J Emerg Med. 2013;45(3):441-449. (Retrospective chart review; 5514 patients) DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.05.005
12. * Caponnetto P, Maglia M, Pistritto L, et al. Family violence and its psychological management at the emergency department: a review. Health Psychol Res. 2019;7(2):8558. (Review) DOI: 10.4081/hpr.2019.8558
13. * Vonkeman J, Atkinson P, Fraser J, et al. Intimate partner violence documentation and awareness in an urban emergency department. Cureus. 2019;11(12):e6493. (Retrospective chart review; 2736 patients) DOI: 10.7759/cureus.6493
18. * Choo EK, Houry DE. Managing intimate partner violence in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2015;65(4):447-451.e441. (Review) DOI: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.11.004
20. * Rasmussen V, Steel Z, Spangaro J, et al. Investigating the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimisation in women presenting to the emergency department in suicidal crisis. Emerg Med Australas. 2021;33(4):703-710. (Cross-sectional study; 563 patients) DOI: 10.1111/1742-6723.13714
21. Ramaswamy A, Frederiksen B, Rae M, et al. Out-of-pocket charges for rape kits and services for sexual assault survivors. Updated November 1, 2022. Accessed April 1, 2023. (Policy brief)
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24. * US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STIs - STI treatment guidelines. Updated July 22, 2021. Accessed April 1, 2023. (Treatment guidelines)
29. Sletten Z. Preventing scarface: pearls for complicated facial lacerations – eyelid lacerations. November 12, 2020. Accessed April 1, 2023. (Case study)
31. Dominguez KL, Smith DK, Vasavi T, et al. Updated guidelines for antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV—United States, 2016. April 18, 2016,. Updated May 23, 2018. Accessed April 1, 2023. (Guidelines)
34. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Use of medication-assisted treatment in emergency departments. National Mental Health and Substance Use Policy Laboratory; 2021. (Government report)
38. Futures Without Violence. Child abuse & mandatory reporting: a complex matter. November 20,2022. Accessed April 1, 2023. (Policy guidance)
43. National Domestic Violence Hotline. Survivors of domestic violence report feeling less safe after contacting law enforcement. Accessed April 1, 2023. (Press release)
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Keywords: intimate partner violence, domestic violence, IPV, human trafficking, abuse, sexual assault, forensic examination, sexual assault nurse examiner, SANE, sexual assault forensic examiner, SAFE, orbital wall fracture, strangulation, ear laceration, facial laceration, bite wound, social services, advocate, trauma-informed care, PEARR tool, CUES intervention, post-exposure prophylaxis, PEP, emergency contraception
Gilberto A. Salazar, MD, FACEP; Jo-Anna Palma, MD; Maria Box, MD; Davindeep Brar, MD
Diksha Mishra, MD; Kate Vander Tuig, MPH
April 20, 2023
April 20, 2026   CME Information
4 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™, 4 ACEP Category I Credits, 4 AAFP Prescribed Credits, 4 AOA Category 2-A or 2-B Credits. Specialty CME Credits: Included as part of the 4 credits, this CME activity is eligible for 4 Trauma, 4 Domestic Violence, and 4 Ethics CME credits.