Procedural sedation is a common procedure performed in the emergency department and is a fundamental skill for emergency clinicians. With a wide variety of procedures and patient populations, procedural sedation can be systematically tailored to individual patients‘ needs, in order to optimize safety and efficacy. This evidence-based review distinguishes the various levels of sedation, provides insight on which patients are appropriate for procedural sedation, lists adjuncts that should be used, and reviews considerations for special populations. The differences between the most frequently utilized medications are presented, as well as a discussion of documentation requirements and discharge criteria.
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Following are the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors.
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Keywords: procedure, sedation, analgesia, anesthesia, pain, OSA, airway, laryngospasm, capnography, fasting, oximetry, oxygen, opioids, anticholinergic, antiemetic, benzodiazepine, propofol, ketamine, ketofol, etomidate, naloxone, flumazenil
Joshua Kern, MD; Alexander Guinn, MD; Prayag Mehta, MD
Jennifer Maccagnano, DO, FACEP, FACOEP; Mark Silverberg, MD
June 1, 2022
June 1, 2025   CME Information
4 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™, 4 ACEP Category I Credits, 4 AAFP Prescribed Credits, 4 AOA Category 2-A or 2-B Credits. Specialty CME Credits: Included as part of the 4 credits, this CME activity is eligible for 2 Pharmacology CME credits.