Congenital Heart Disease In Pediatric Patients: Emergency Room Diagnosis & Treatment, Shock, Cyanosis, Congestive Heart Failure | EB Medicine
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Congenital Heart Disease In Pediatric Patients: Recognizing The Undiagnosed And Managing Complications In The Emergency Department

May 2016

Abstract

Congenital heart disease is the most common form of all congenital malformations and, despite advances in prenatal and newborn screening, it may present undiagnosed to the emergency department. Signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease are variable and often nonspecific, making recognition and treatment challenging. Patient presentations can range from life-threatening shock or cyanosis in a neonate to respiratory distress or failure to thrive in infants. Advances in surgical techniques have improved short- and long-term survival of infants and children with congenital heart disease, but these children are at risk for a variety of complications related to the underlying or surgical anatomy and physiology. This review focuses on the recognition and initial management of patients with undiagnosed congenital heart disease presenting to the ED and touches on considerations for postoperative infants and children with complex congenital heart disease.

Keywords: emergency medicine CME, congenital heart disease, CHD, ventricular septal defect, VSD, atrial septal defect, ASD, patent ductus arteriosus, PDA, pulmonic stenosis, Tetralogy of Fallot, TOF, Tet spell, coarctation of the aorta, transposition of the great arteries, TGA, aortic stenosis, ALCAPA, anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, HLHS, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, PAPVR, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, TAPVR, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, shock, cyanosis, congestive heart failure, electrocardiogram, ECG, chest x-ray 

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