This course reviews evidence-based recommendations to improve care and outcomes for pregnant and postpartum patients with hemorrhage or severe hypertension. Includes video case reviews and 2 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. CME expires on 9/15/2024.
According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 700 women die each year due to complications of pregnancy or delivery,1 and the rate of pregnancy-related mortality in the United States increased from 7.2 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1987 to 17.3 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2017.2 In response to these data, the Joint Commission evaluated relevant literature to identify areas of care that would have the greatest impact on pregnancy-related mortality rates. Their review identified areas of high impact on the reduction of maternal mortality rates, including improved recognition and management of maternal hemorrhage and pregnancy-related severe hypertension/pre-eclampsia.
In 2019, the Joint Commission released a report establishing new standards and elements of performance for maternal safety that are intended to improve the quality and safety of care for pregnant and postpartum patients by establishing patient care requirements for accredited organizations. These elements include development of evidence-based written procedures and role-specific education for clinicians and staff for the management of maternal hemorrhage and maternal severe hypertension/pre-eclampsia.3 The requirements went into effect for Joint Commission–accredited hospitals and other healthcare organizations on July 1, 2020.
This special report summarizes evidence-based recommendations and provides tools for the recognition and management of patients with maternal hemorrhage or severe hypertension/pre-eclampsia in the emergency department (ED). This information can also serve as a foundation to develop institutional protocols for accredited organizations that do not have existing protocols.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) defines maternal hemorrhage as cumulative blood loss >1000 mL or blood loss accompanied by signs and symptoms of hypovolemia, occurring within 24 hours after delivery.4 Other organizations, including the World Health Organization,5 use a more conservative definition of postpartum hemorrhage as >500 mL of blood loss within 24 hours after delivery, or differentiate by delivery type, setting thresholds of 500 mL for vaginal delivery and 1000 mL for cesarean delivery.4 ACOG recommends the use of objective methods to quantify blood loss, such as weighing blood-soaked drapes or using calibrated obstetric drapes. Visual methods of estimation have been shown to consistently underestimate blood loss.6
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