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References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and
number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available.

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  2. Dong SL, Kelly KD, Oland RC, et al. ED management of cellulitis: a review of five urban centers. Am J Emerg Med 2001;19(7):535-540. (Retrospective, 416 patients)
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  7. Yim CD, Sane SS, Bjarnason H. Superior vena cava stenting. Radiol Clin North Am 2000;38(2):409-424. (Review)
  8. Tintinalli J, ed. Emergency Medicine: a Comprehensive Study Guide. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000: 1823-1825. (Textbook)
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  10. Wall DB, Klein SR, Black S, et al. A simple model to help distinguish necrotizing fasciitis from nonnecrotizing soft tissue infection. J Am Coll Surg 2000;191:227-231. (Retrospective review, 359 patients)
  11. Keith NM. Blood volume changes in wound shock and primary haemorrhage. Reports of the Special Investigation Committee on Surgical Shock and Allied Conditions, 14 March, 1919, vol. 1x. p.2-16.
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  15. Rainer TH, Chan TYF, Cocks RA. Do peripheral blood counts have any prognostic value following trauma? Injury 1999;30:179-185. (Prospective study, 20 patients)
  16. Wong CH, Khin LW, Heng KS, et al. The LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis) score: a tool for distinguishing necrotizing fasciitis from other soft tissue intections. Crit Care Med 2004;32:1535-1541. (Retrospective observational study, 225 control patients, 89 patients with necrotizing fasciitis)
  17. Neale D, Tovey C, Vali A, et al. Evaluation of the simply Ddimer assay as a screening test for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in an emergency department. Emerg Med J 2004;21:663-666. (Prospective study, 187 patients)
  18. Fancher TL, White RH, Kravitz RL. Combined use of rapid D-dimer testing and estimation of clinical probability in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis: systematic review. BMJ 2004;329:1228-1236. (Review)
  19. Rathbun SW, Whitsett TL, Raskob GE. Negative D–dimer result to exclude recurrent deep venous thrombosis: a management trial. Ann Intern Med 2004;141:839-845. (Prospective cohort study, 300 patients)
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  21. Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, et at. Evaluation of Ddimer in the diagnosis of suspected deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1227-1235. (Prospective study, 1096 patients)
  22. Bates SM, Kearon C, Crowther M, et al. A diagnostic strategy involving a quantitative latex D-dimer assay reliably excludes deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:787-794. (Prospective cohort study, 283 patients)
  23. Anderson DR, Kovacs MJ, Kovacs G, et al. Combined use of clinical assessment and D-dimer to improve the management of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected deep vein thrombosis (the EDITED Study). J Thromb Haemost 2003;1(4):635-636. (Prospective cohort study, 1075)
  24. Subramaniam RM, Chou T, Heath R, et al. Importance of pretest probability score and D-dimer assay before sonography for lower limb deep venous thrombosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006;186:206-212. (Prospective study, 542 patients)
  25. Aguilar C, del Villar V. Combined D-dimer and clinical probability are useful for exclusion of recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Am J Hematol 2006;82:1-4. (Observation prospective study, 105 patients)
  26. Yamaki T, Nozaki M, Sakurai H, et al. Prospective evaluation of a screening protocol to exclude deep vein thrombosis on the basis of a combination of quantitative D-dimer testing and pretest clinical probability score. J Am Coll Surg 2005;201:701- 709. (Prospective study, 158 patients)
  27. Schutgens RE, Haas FJLM, Biesma. Reduced efficacy of clinical probability score and D-dimer assay in elderly subjects suspected of having deep vein thrombosis. Br J Haemat 2005;129:653-657. (Retrospective study, 812 patients)
  28. Kearon C, Ginsberg JS, Douketis J, et al. A randomized trial of diagnostic strategies after normal proximal vein ultrasonography for suspected deep venous thrombosis: D-dimer testing compared with repeated ultrasonography. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:490-496. (Prospective, randomized, multicenter study, 810 patients)
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  31. Mountain D, Bailey PM, O’Brien D, et al. Blood cultures ordered in the adult emergency department are rarely useful. Eur J Emerg Med 2006;13(2):76-79. (Retrospective review, 218 patients)
  32. Mills AM, Chen EH. Are blood cultures necessary in adults with cellulitis? Ann Emerg Med 2005;45(5):548-549. (Review)
  33. Garcea G, Loyd T, Jacobs M, et al. Role of microbiological investigations in the management of non-perineal cutaneous abscesses. Postgrad Med J 2003;79:519-521. (Retrospective analysis, 68 patients)
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  35. Armstrong DG, Lipsky. Diabetic foot infections: stepwise medical and surgical management. Int Wound J 2004;1(2):123- 132. (Review)
  36. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Deery HG, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections. Clin Infect Dis 2004 1;39(7):885-910. (Guideline)
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  40. Lazzarini L, Conti E, Tositti G, et al. Erysipelas and cellulitis: clinical and microbiological spectrum in an Italian tertiary care hospital. J Infect 2005;51(5):383-389. (Retrospective study, 200 patients)
  41. Roumen-Klappe EM, den Heijer M, van Uum SHM, et al. Inflammatory response in the acute phase of deep vein thrombosis. J Vasc Surg 2002;35:701-706. (Prospective, 73 patients)
  42. Andrews EJ, Fleischer AC. Sonography for deep venous thrombosis. Ultrasound Q 2005;21:213-225. (Review)
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  45. Tayal VS, Hasan N, Norton J, et al. The effect of soft-tissue ultrasound on the management of cellulitis in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2006; 13(4):384-388. (Prospective, observational study, 126 patients)
  46. Yen ZS, Wang HP, Ma HM, et al. Ultrasonographic screening of clinically-suspected necrotizing fasciitis. Acad Emerg Med 2002;9(12):1448-1451. (Prospective study, observational review, 62 patients)
  47. Polak JF, Yucel EK, Bettmann MA, et al. Suspected upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT). [online publication]. Reston (VA):American College of Radiology (ACR); 2005. 5p. (Guideline)
  48. Perron AD, Brady WJ, Keats TE. Orthopedic pitfalls in the ED: acute compartment syndrome. Am J Emerg Med 2001;19:413-416. (Review)
  49. Köstler W, Strohm PC, Südkamp NP. Acute compartment syndrome of the limb. Injury 2004;35(12):1221-1227 (Review)
  50. Whitesides T, Haney T, Morimoto K, et al. Tissue pressure measurements as a determinant for the need of fasciotomy. Clin Orthop 1975;113:43-51.
  51. Anand SS, Well PS, Hunt D, et al. Does This Patient Have Deep Vein Thrombosis? JAMA 1998;279(14):1094-1099. (Review)
  52. Heit JA, O’Fallon WM, Petterson TM, et al. Relative impact of risk factors for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1245-1248. (Case-control study, 625 patients)
  53. Sorensen HT, Mellemkjaer L, Steffensen FH, et al. The risk of a diagnosis of cancer after primary deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 1998;338(17):1169- 1173. (Cohort, 15,348 patients)
  54. Cogo A, Bernardi E, Prandoni P, et al. Acquired risk factors for deep-vein thrombosis in symptomatic outpatients. Arch of Intern Med 1994;154(2):164-168. (Cohort)
  55. Hirsh J, Hoak J. Management of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. A statement for healthcare professionals. Council on Thrombosis (in consultation with the Council of Cardiovascular Radiology), American Heart Association. Circulation 1996;93:2212-2245. (Clinical practice guidelines)
  56. Joffe HV, Kucher N, Tapson VF, et al. Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis: a prospective registry of 592 patients. Circulation 2004;110(12):1605-1611. (Prospective multicenter registry, 592 patients)
  57. Martinelli I, Battaglioli T, Bucciarelli P, et al. Risk factors and recurrence rate of primary deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities. Circulation 2004;110(5):566-570. (Prospective study, 115 patients)
  58. Martinelli I, Cattaneo M, Panzeri D, et al. Risk factors for deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(9):707-711. (Frequency-matched case-control study, total 265 patients, 36 patients with upper extremity DVT)
  59. 59. Sharafuddin MJ, Sun S, Hoballah JJ. Endovascular management of venous thrombotic diseases of the upper torso and extremities. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002;13(10):975-990. (Review)
  60. Somjen GM, Donlan J, Hurse J, et al. Duplex ultrasound examination of the acutely painful and swollen leg. Dermatol Surg 1996;22(4):383-387. (Prospective study, 188 extremities of 180 patients)
  61. Tapson VF, Carroll BA, Davidson BL, et al. The diagnostic approach to acute venous thromboembolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160(3):1043-1066. (Clinical Practice Guideline)
  62. Weinmann EE, Salzman EW. Deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1994;331(24):1630-1641. (Review)
  63. Hirsh J, Piovella F, Pini M. Congenital antithrombin III deficiency. Incidence and clinical features. Am J Med 1989;87(3B):34S-38S. (Review)
  64. Pollack C, Tapson V, Merli G et al. The clinical challenge of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the hospitalized patient: optimizing recognition, evaluation, and prophylaxis of at-risk patients. CEVAT Panel Reports 2002 Nov 1; 1-13. (Review)
  65. Joffe HV, Goldhaber SZ. Laboratory thrombophilias and venous thromboembolism. Vasc Med 2002;7(2):93-102. (Review)
  66. Soomro RM, Bucur IJ, Noorani S. Cumulative incidence of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and puerperium: a hospital-based study. Angiology 2002;53(4):429-34. (Prospective study, 59 clinically suspected DVT out of 39,757 deliveries)
  67. Ginsberg JS, Brill-Edwards P, Burrows RF, et al. Venous thrombosis during pregnancy: leg and trimester of presentation. Thromb Haemost 1992;67(5):519-20. (Cohort study, 60 patients)
  68. Ginsberg JS, Hirsh J. Use of antithrombotic agents during pregnancy. Chest 1998;114:524S-530S. (Review)
  69. Bjorgell O, Nilsson PE, Jarenros H. Isolated nonfilling of contrast in deep leg vein segments seen on phlebography, and a comparison with color Doppler ultrasound assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis. Angiology 2000;51(6):451-461. (Prospective study, 100 patients)
  70. Del Pinal F, Herro F, Jado E. Acute thumb ischemia secondary to high-pressure injection injury: salvage by emergency decompression, radical debridement, and free hallux hemipulp transfer. J Trauma 2001;50(3):571-574. (Case reports)
  71. Yamaguchi S, Viegas SF. Causes of upper extremity compartment syndrome. Hand Clin 1998;14(3):365-370. (Review)
  72. Younger AS, Curran P, McQueen MM. Backslabs and plaster casts: which will best accommodate increasing intracompartmental pressures? Injury 1990;21(3):179-181. (Comparison study)
  73. Wong L, Spence RJ. Escharotomy and fasciotomy of the burned upper extremity. Hand Clin 2000;16(2):165-174. (Review)
  74. Owen CA, Mubarak SJ, Hargens AR, et al. Intramuscular pressures with limb compression clarification of the pathogenesis of the drug-induced muscle-compartment syndrome. N Engl J Med 1979;300(21):1169-1172. (Review)
  75. Curry SC, Chang D, Connor D. Drug- and toxin-induced rhabdomyolysis. Ann Emerg Med 1989;18(10):1068-1084. (Review)
  76. Ochoa-Gomez J, Villar-Arias A, Aresti I, et al. A case of severe hyperkalaemia and compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis after drugs abuse. Resuscitation 2002;54(1):103-105. (Case report)
  77. Esmail AN, Flynn JM, Ganley TJ, et al. Acute exercise-induced compartment syndrome in the anterior leg. Am J Sports Med 2001;29(4):509-512. (Case report, review)
  78. Perron AD, Brady WJ, Keats TE. Orthopedic Pitfalls in the ED: Acute Compartment Syndrome. Am J of Emerg Med 2001;19:413-416. (Review)
  79. Heemskerk J, Kitslaar P. Acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg: retrospective study on prevalence, technique, and outcome of fasciotomies. World J Surg 2003;27(6):744-747. (Retrospective study, 40 patients)
  80. Mithofer K, Lhowe DW, Altman GT. Delayed presentation of acute compartment syndrome after contusion of the thigh. J OrthopTrauma 2002;16(6):436-438. (Case report)
  81. Lindsay MB. Quadriceps compartment syndrome from minor trauma. Acad Emerg Med 1999;6:860-861. (Case report)
  82. Ghobrial TF, Eglseder WA, Bleckner SA. Proximal ulna shaft fractures and associated compartment syndromes. Am J Orthop 2001;30(9):703-707. (Retrospective and case report, 6 patients)
  83. Tiwari A, Haq AI, Myint F, et al. Acute compartment syndromes. Br J Surg 2002;89(4):397-412. (Review)
  84. Moed BR, Thorderson PK. Measurement of intracompartmental pressure: a comparison of the slit catheter, side-ported needle, and simple needle. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993;75(2):231- 235. (Animal study)
  85. Uliasz A, Ishida JT, Fleming JK, et al. Comparing the methods of measuring compartment pressures in acute compartment syndrome. Am J Emerg Med 2003;21(2):143-145. (Comparison study)
  86. Perron AD, Brady WJ, Keats TE. Orthopedic Pitfalls in the ED: Acute Compartment Syndrome. Am J Emerg Med 2001;19:413- 416. (Review)
  87. Velmahos GC, Toutouzas KG. Vascular trauma and compartment syndromes. Surg Clin N Am 2002;82(1):125-141. (Review)
  88. Heppenstall RB, Sapega AA, Izant T, et al. Compartment syndrome: a quantitative study of high-energy phosphorus compounds using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Trauma 1989;29(8):1113-1119. (Animal study)
  89. Bernot M, Gupta R, Dobrasz J, et al. The effect of antecedent ischemia on the tolerance of skeletal muscle to increased interstitial pressure. J Orthop Trauma 1996;10(8):555-559. (Animal study)
  90. Lewis RT. Soft tissue infections. World J Surg 1998;22(2):146- 151. (Review)
  91. Paci E, Cariddi A, Barchielli A, et al. Long-term sequelae of breast cancer surgery. Tumori 1996;82(4):321-324. (Convenience sample, 238 patients)
  92. Bumpers HL, Best IM, Norman D, et al. Debilitating lymphedema of the upper extremity after treatment of breast cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 2002;25(4):365-367. (Case report and review)
  93. Segerstrom K, Bjerle P, Graffman s, et al. Factors that influence the incidence of brachial oedema after treatment of breast cancer. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 1992;26(2):223-227. (Retrospective review, 136 patients)
  94. Yap KPL, McCready DR, Narod S, et al. Factors influencing arm and axillary symptoms after treatment for node negative breast carcinoma. Cancer 2003;97(6):1369-1375. (Convenience sample, 370 patients)
  95. Davis AM, O’Sullivan B, Turcotte R, et al. Late radiation morbidity following randomization to preoperative versus postoperative radiotherapy in extremity soft tissue sarcoma. Radiother Oncol 2005;75(1):48-53. (Prospective study, 129 patients)
  96. van Dongen CJJ, van den Belt AGM, Prins MH, et al. Fixed dose subcutaneous low molecular weight heparins versus adjusted dose unfracionated heparin for venous thromboembolism. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2006(1): CD00777. (Cochrane Review)
  97. Van der Heijden JF, Hutten BA, Buller HR, et al. Vitamin K antagonists or low-molecular-weight heparin for the long term treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2006(1): CD 01299. (Cochrane Review)
  98. Kluytmans-VandenBergh MFQ, Klytmans JAJW. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureua: current perspectives. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12(Suppl. 1):9-15. (Review)
  99. King MD, Humphrey BJ Wang YF, et al. Emergence of community- acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus USA 300 clone as the predominant cause of skin and soft-tissue infections. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:309-317. (Active, prospective laboratory surveillance, 384 patients)
  100. Clancy MJ, Graepler A, Breese PE, et al. Widespread emergence of methicillin resistance in community-acquired staphylococcus aureus infections in Denver. South Med J 2005;98(11):1069-75. (Retrospective cohort)
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  103. Deresinski S. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus: an evolutionary, epidemiologic, and therapeutic odyssey. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:562-573. (Review)
  104. Donald M, Marlow N, Swinburn E, et al. Emergency department management of home intravenous antibiotic therapy for cellulitis. Emerg Med J 2005;22(10):715-717. (Retrospective study, 124 patients)
  105. Gilbert DN, Dworkin RJ, Raber SR, et al. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial-drug therapy. N Engl J Med 1997; 337(12):829- 838. (Review)
  106. Steinmetz D, Berkovits E, Edelstein H, et al. Home intravenous antibiotic therapy programme, 1999. J Infect 2001;42(3):176-180. (Retrospective, 250 patients)
  107. Corwin P, Toop L, McGeoch G, et al. Randomized controlled trial of intravenous antibiotic treatment for cellulitis at home compared with hospital. BMJ 2005;15,330(7483):129. (Prospective, randomized study, 200 patients)
  108. Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Diabetic foot infections: stepwise medical and surgical management. Int wound J 2004;1(2):123- 132. (Review)
  109. Wong CH, Chang HC, Pasupathy S, et al. Necrotizing fasciitis: clinical presentation, microbiology, and determinants of mortality. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003;85-A(8):1454-1460. (Retrospective chart review, 89 patients)
  110. McHenry CR, Piotrowski JJ, Petrinic D, et al. Determinants of mortality for necrotizing soft-tissue infections. Ann Surg 1995;221:558-563. (Retrospective study, 65 patients)
  111. Bilton BD, Zibari GB, McMillan RW, et al. Aggressive surgical management of necrotizing fasciitis serves to decrease mortality: a retrospective study. Am Surg 1998;64:397-400. (Retrospective study, 68 patients)
  112. Jarrett P, Rademaker M, Duffill M. The clinical spectrum of necrotizing fasciitis. A review of 15 cases. Aust N Z J Med 1997;27(1):29-34. (Retrospective review of 15 patients)
  113. Fontes RA, Ogilvie CM, Miclau T. Necrotizing soft-tissue infections. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2000;8:151-158. (Review)
  114. Kearon C, Julian JA, Newman TE, et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. McMaster Diagnostic Imaging Practice Guidelines Initiative. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:663- 677. (Review of prospective cohort studies)
  115. Eskandari MK, Sugimoto H, Richardson T, et al. Is color-flow duplex a good diagnostic test for detection of isolated calf vein thrombosis in high-risk patients? Angiology 2000;51(9):705-710. (Retrospective review, 166 patients)
  116. Rose SC, Zweibel WJ, Nelson BD, et al. Symptomatic lower extremity deep venous thrombosis: accuracy, limitations, and role. Radiology 1990;175:639-644.
  117. Bradley MJ, Spencer PA, Alexander L, et al. Colour flow mapping in the diagnosis of the calf deep vein thrombosis. Clin Radiol 1993;47:399-402.
  118. Mattos MA, Londrey GL, Leutz DW, et al. Color-flow duplex scanning for the surveillance and diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombosis. J Vasc Surg 1992;15:366-375
  119. Atri M, Herba MJ, Reinhold C, et al. Accuracy of sonography in the evaluation of calf deep vein thrombosis in both postoperative surveillance and symptomatic patients. Am J Roentgenol 1996;16(6):1361-1367. (Prospective, double-blind study, 287 patients)
  120. Lapidus L, de Bri E, Ponzer S, et al. High sensitivity with color duplex sonography in thrombosis screening after ankle fracture surgery. J Thromb Haemost 2006;4(4): 807-812. (Prospective study, 180 patients)
  121. Jennersjö CM, Fagerberg IH, karlander SG, et al. Normal Ddimer concentration is a common finding in symptomatic out- patients with distal deep vein thrombosis. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2005;16(7):517-523. (Prospective study, 393 patients)
  122. Philbrick JT, Becker DM. Calf deep venous thrombosis. A wolf in sheep’s clothing? Arch Intern Med 1988;148(10):2131- 2138. (Review)
  123. Geerts WH, Heit JA, Clagett GP, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism. Chest 2001;119:132S-175S. (Evidence based guidelines)
  124. Gottlieb RH, Widjaja J. Clinical outcomes of untreated symptomatic patients with negative findings on sonography of the thigh for deep vein thrombosis: our experience and a review of the literature. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999;172:1601-1604. (Retrospective study, 146 patients; Review)
  125. Segal JB, Bolger DT, Jenckes MW, et al. Outpatient therapy with low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism: a review of efficacy, safety, and costs. Am J Med 2003;115:298-308. (Review)
  126. Wells, PS. Outpatient treatment of patients with deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2001;7:360-364. (Review)
  127. Spyropoulos AC, Hurley JS, Ciesla GN, et al. Management of acute proximal deep vein thrombosis: pharmacoeconomic evaluation of outpatient treatment with exnoaparin vs inpatient treatment with unfractionated heparin. Chest 2002;122:108-114. (Retrospective analysis)
  128. Schraibman IG, Milne AA, Royle EM. Home versus inpatient treatment for deep vein thrombosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 (1):CD02074. (Cochrane review)
  129. Van Dongen CJ Mac Gillavry MR, Prins MH. Once versus twice daily LMWH for the initial treatment of venous thromboembolism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(1):CD02037. (Cochrane review)
  130. Wang TL, Hung CR. Role of tissue oxygen saturation monitoring in diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis of the lower limbs. Ann Emerg Med 2004; 44:222-228 (Prospective observational study, 234 patients)
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  132. Fustes-Morales A, Gutierrez-Castrellon P, Duran-Mckinster C, et al. Necrotizing soft tissue infection: report of 39 pediatric cases. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:893-899. (Review)
  133. Jallali N, Withey S, Butler PE. Hyperbaric oxygen as adjuvant therapy in the management of necrotizing fasciitis. Am J Surg 2005;189:462-466. (Review)
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  138. Mindrup SR, Kealey GP, Fallon B. Hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of Fournier’s gangrene. J Urol 2005;173:1975-1977. (Retrospective Review, 42 patients)
  139. Brown DR, Davis NL, Lepawsky M, et al. A multicentre review of the treatment of major truncal necrotizing fasciitis with and without hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Am J Surg 2002;73:485-489. (Retrospective review, multicenter review)
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