Both vomiting AND diarrhea must be present for the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis (AGE).
Consider other etiologies in patients in whom vomiting has continued more than 24 to 48 hours without diarrhea or in patients with focal abdominal tenderness.
Most cases of AGE are due to viral pathogens and require minimal medical intervention; however, the course of bacterial causes of AGE tend to be more severe.
Most Important References
Guarino A, Ashkenazi S, Gendrel D, et al. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/ European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: update 2014. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;59(1):132-152. (Guideline) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000000375
Bellemare S, Hartling L, Wiebe N, et al. Oral rehydration versus intravenous therapy for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMC Med. 2004;2:11. (Meta-analysis; 14 studies) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-2-11
Freedman SB, Willan AR, Boutis K, et al. Effect of dilute apple juice and preferred fluids vs electrolyte maintenance solution on treatment failure among children with mild gastroenteritis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(18):1966-1974. (Prospective noninferiority study; 647 subjects) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.5352