<< Managing Dislocations of the Hip, Knee, and Ankle in the Emergency Department (Trauma CME)


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study is included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Epstein HC, Wiss DA. Traumatic anterior dislocation of the hip. Orthopedics. 1985;8(1):130, 132-134. (Review)
  2. Pietrafesa CA, Hoffman JR. Traumatic dislocation of the hip. JAMA. 1983;249(24):3342-3346. (Retrospective study)
  3. * Clegg TE, Roberts CS, Greene JW, et al. Hip dislocations-- epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes. Injury. 2010;41(4):329-334. (Review)
  4. Foulk DM, Mullis BH. Hip dislocation: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18(4):199-209. (Review)
  5. Dreinhofer KE, Schwarzkopf SR, Haas NP, et al. Isolated traumatic dislocation of the hip. Long-term results in 50 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1994;76(1):6-12. (Retrospective study; 50 patients)
  6. * Hak DJ, Goulet JA. Severity of injuries associated with traumatic hip dislocation as a result of motor vehicle collisions. J Trauma. 1999;47(1):60-63. (Retrospective study; 66 patients)
  7. Tornetta P 3rd, Mostafavi HR. Hip dislocation: current treatment regimens. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1997;5(1):27-36. (Review)
  8. Wheeless CR. Wheeless’ Textbook of Orthopaedics presented by Duke Orthopaedics. Data Trace Internet Publishing, LLC; 2014. (Textbook)
  9. Frassica FJ, Sim FH, Staeheli JW, et al. Dislocation of the knee. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991(263):200-205. (Retrospective study; 17 patients)
  10. * Piper D, Howells N. Acute knee dislocation. Trauma. 2014;16(2):70-78. (Review)
  11. Knutson T, Bothwell J, Durbin R. Evaluation and management of traumatic knee injuries in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2015;33(2):345-362. (Review)
  12. Brautigan B, Johnson DL. The epidemiology of knee dislocations. Clin Sports Med. 2000;19(3):387-397. (Review)
  13. Harb A, Lincoln D, Michaelson J. The MR dimple sign in irreducible posterolateral knee dislocations. Skeletal Radiol. 2009;38(11):1111-1114. (Case report; 1 patient)
  14. Cush G, Irgit K. Drop foot after knee dislocation: evaluation and treatment. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2011;19(2):139-146. (Review)
  15. Monahan TJ. Management of acute and chronic nerve injuries in the multiple ligament injured knee. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review. 2001;9(3):227-238. (Review)
  16. * Johnson ME, Foster L, DeLee JC. Neurologic and vascular injuries associated with knee ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(12):2448-2462. (Review)
  17. Georgilas I, Mouzopoulos G. Anterior ankle dislocation without associated fracture: a case with an 11 year follow-up. Acta Orthop Belg. 2008;74(2):266-269. (Case report; 1 patient)
  18. Gogi N, Khan SA, Anwar R. Anterior dislocation of the tibio-talar joint without diastasis or fracture--a case report. Foot Ankle Surg. 2008;14(1):47-49. (Case report; 1 patient)
  19. Rivera F, Bertone C, De Martino M, et al. Pure dislocation of the ankle: three case reports and literature review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001(382):179-184. (Case series; 3 patients)
  20. Lertwanich P, Santanapipatkul P, Harnroonroj T. Closed posteromedial dislocation of the ankle without fracture: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91(7):1137-1140. (Case report; 1 patient)
  21. Mazur JM, Loveless EA, Cummings RJ. Ankle dislocation without fracture in a child. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2007;36(9):E138-E140. (Case report; 1 patient)
  22. Tarantino U, Cannata G, Gasbarra E, et al. Open medial dislocation of the ankle without fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90(10):1382-1384. (Case report; 1 patient)
  23. Distefano S, Divita G. A case of pure dislocation of the ankle joint. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1988;14(1):133-137. (Case report; 1 patient)
  24. Finkemeier C, Engebretsen L, Gannon J. Tibial-talar dislocation without fracture: treatment principles and outcome. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1995;3(1):47-49. (Case report; 1 patient)
  25. Greenbaum MA, Pupp GR. Ankle dislocation without fracture: an unusual case report. J Foot Surg. 1992;31(3):238-240. (Case report; 1 patient)
  26. * Wroble RR, Nepola JV, Malvitz TA. Ankle dislocation without fracture. Foot Ankle. 1988;9(2):64-74. (Case series; 8 patients)
  27. Melenevsky Y, Mackey RA, Abrahams RB, et al. Talar fractures and dislocations: a radiologist’s guide to timely diagnosis and classification. Radiographics. 2015;35(3):765-779. (Review)
  28. * Wagner R, Blattert TR, Weckbach A. Talar dislocations. Injury. 2004;35 Suppl 2:Sb36-Sb45. (Review)
  29. Abu-Laban R, Rose N. Foot and Ankle. In: Marx J, Hockenberg R, Walls R, eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine - Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2013:723-750. (Textbook chapter)
  30. Moehring HD, Tan RT, Marder RA, et al. Ankle dislocation. J Orthop Trauma. 1994;8(2):167-172. (Review)
  31. Karampinas PK, Kavroudakis E, Polyzois V, et al. Open talar dislocations without associated fractures. Foot Ankle Surg. 2014;20(2):100-104. (Case series; 9 patients)
  32. * Weston JT, Liu X, Wandtke ME, et al. A systematic review of total dislocation of the talus. Orthop Surg. 2015;7(2):97-101. (Systematic review; 86 patients)
  33. Syed AA, Agarwal M, Dosani A, et al. Medial subtalar dislocation: importance of clinical diagnosis in distinguishing from other dislocations. Eur J Emerg Med. 2003;10(3):232-235. (Review)
  34. Rammelt S, Goronzy J. Subtalar dislocations. Foot Ankle Clin. 2015;20(2):253-264. (Review)
  35. Dean DB. Field management of displaced ankle fractures: techniques for successful reduction. Wilderness Environ Med. 2009;20(1):57-60. (Review)
  36. Wood GC, McLauchlan GJ. Outcome assessment in the elderly after total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2006;21(3):398-404. (Randomized controlled trial; 99 patients)
  37. Tabuenca J, Truan JR. Knee injuries in traumatic hip dislocation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000;(377):78-83. (Retrospective study; 187 patients)
  38. * Barnes CJ, Pietrobon R, Higgins LD. Does the pulse examination in patients with traumatic knee dislocation predict a surgical arterial injury? A meta-analysis. J Trauma. 2002;53(6):1109-1114. (Meta-analysis; 7 studies; 284 injuries)
  39. Klimke A, Furin M. Prehospital Immobilization. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts and Hedges’ Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:893-922. (Textbook chapter)
  40. * Georgiadis AG, Guthrie ST, Shepard AD. Beware of ultra-low-velocity knee dislocation. Orthopedics. 2014;37(10):656-658. (Review)
  41. Gray JL, Cindric M. Management of arterial and venous injuries in the dislocated knee. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2011;19(2):131-138. (Review)
  42. Mills WJ, Barei DP, McNair P. The value of the ankle-brachial index for diagnosing arterial injury after knee dislocation: a prospective study. J Trauma. 2004;56(6):1261-1265. (Prospective study; 38 patients)
  43. * Seroyer ST, Musahl V, Harner CD. Management of the acute knee dislocation: the Pittsburgh experience. Injury. 2008;39(7):710-718. (Review)
  44. Brooks RA, Ribbans WJ. Diagnosis and imaging studies of traumatic hip dislocations in the adult. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000(377):15-23. (Review)
  45. Roberts JR, Hedges J. Roberts and Hedges’ Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2004. (Textbook)
  46. Gimber LH, Scalcione LR, Rowan A, et al. Multiligamentous injuries and knee dislocations. Skeletal Radiol. 2015;44(11):1559-1572. (Review)
  47. Klineberg EO, Crites BM, Flinn WR, et al. The role of arteriography in assessing popliteal artery injury in knee dislocations. J Trauma. 2004;56(4):786-790. (Retrospective study; 55 patients)
  48. * Nicandri GT, Chamberlain AM, Wahl CJ. Practical management of knee dislocations: a selective angiography protocol to detect limb-threatening vascular injuries. Clin J Sport Med. 2009;19(2):125-129. (Review)
  49. Jaskulka RA, Fischer G, Fenzl G. Dislocation and fracture-dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1991;73(3):465-469. (Retrospective study; 54 patients)
  50. Hillyard RF, Fox J. Sciatic nerve injuries associated with traumatic posterior hip dislocations. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21(7):545-548. (Retrospective study; 106 patients)
  51. Eyi YE, Arziman I, Kaldirim U, et al. Fascia iliaca compartment block in the reduction of dislocation of total hip arthroplasty. Am J Emerg Med. 2014;32(9):1139. (Case report; 1 patient)
  52. * Vinson DR, Hoehn CL. Sedation-assisted orthopedic reduction in emergency medicine: the safety and success of a one physician/one nurse model. West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(1):47-54. (Prospective study; 442 patients)
  53. Yang EC, Cornwall R. Initial treatment of traumatic hip dislocations in the adult. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000(377):24-31. (Review)
  54. * Frymann SJ, Cumberbatch GL, Stearman AS. Reduction of dislocated hip prosthesis in the emergency department using conscious sedation: a prospective study. Emerg Med J. 2005;22(11):807-809. (Prospective study; 101 patients)
  55. Schafer SJ, Anglen JO. The East Baltimore lift: a simple and effective method for reduction of posterior hip dislocations. J Orthop Trauma. 1999;13(1):56-57. (Prospective study)
  56. Hendey GW, Avila A. The Captain Morgan technique for the reduction of the dislocated hip. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;58(6):536-540. (Prospective study; 77 patients)
  57. Dan M, Phillips A, Simonian M, et al. Rocket launcher: a novel reduction technique for posterior hip dislocations and review of current literature. Emerg Med Australas. 2015;27(3):192-195. (Prospective study; 6 patients)
  58. Boss SE, Mehta A, Maddow C, et al. Critical orthopedic skills and procedures. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2013;31(1):261-290. (Review)
  59. * Howells NR, Brunton LR, Robinson J, et al. Acute knee dislocation: an evidence based approach to the management of the multiligament injured knee. Injury. 2011;42(11):1198-1204. (Review)
  60. Dedmond BT, Almekinders LC. Operative versus nonoperative treatment of knee dislocations: a meta-analysis. Am J Knee Surg. 2001;14(1):33-38. (Meta-analysis; 206 patients)
  61. 61. Cole BJ, Harner CD. The multiple ligament injured knee. Clin Sports Med. 1999;18(1):241-262. (Review)
  62. Jiang W, Yao J, He Y, et al. The timing of surgical treatment of knee dislocations: a systematic review. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23(10):3108-3113. (Systematic review; 150 patients)
  63. Horn A, Ufberg J. Management of Common Dislocations. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts and Hedges’ Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:954-998. (Textbook chapter)
  64. Thangarajah T, Giotakis N, Matovu E. Bilateral ankle dislocation without malleolar fracture. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2008;47(5):441-446. (Case report; 1 patient)
  65. Grotz MR, Alpantaki K, Kagda FH, et al. Open tibiotalar dislocation without associated fracture in a 7-year-old girl. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2008;37(6):E116-E118. (Case report; 1 patient)
  66. Kellam P, Ostrum RF. Systematic review and meta-analysis of avascular necrosis and posttraumatic arthritis after traumatic hip dislocation. J Orthop Trauma. 2016;30(1):10-16. (Systematic review and meta-analysis; 1707 patients)
  67. Stewart MJ, Milford LW. Fracture-dislocation of the hip; an end-result study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1954;36(A:2):315-342. (Retrospective study)
  68. Yahya MM, Mwipatayi BP, Abbas M, et al. Popliteal artery injury: Royal Perth experience and literature review. ANZ J Surg. 2005;75(10):882-886. (Review)
  69. Meek RM, Allan DB, McPhillips G, et al. Epidemiology of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006;447:9-18. (Meta-analysis; 14,314 patients)
  70. Smith T, Davies L, Ingham C, et al. What activities cause hip dislocation? A review of 100 total hip replacement dislocations. Adv Physiother. 2014;14(2):55-60. (Retrospective review; 100 patients)
  71. Woo MS, Kang JS, Moon KH. Outcome of total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of the femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Arthroplasty. 2014;29(12):2267-2270. (Prospective study; 32 patients)
  72. Dewal H, Maurer SL, Tsai P, et al. Efficacy of abduction bracing in the management of total hip arthroplasty dislocation. J Arthroplasty. 2004;19(6):733-738. (Retrospective review; 149 patients)
  73. Lombardi AV Jr, Mallory TH, Vaughn BK, et al. Dislocation following primary posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 1993;8(6):633-639. (Case report; 1 patient)
  74. Aderinto J, Gross AW, Rittenhouse B. Non-traumatic anterior dislocation of a total knee replacement associated with neurovascular injury. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2009;91(8):658-659. (Case report; 1 patient)
  75. Sillanpää P, Mattila VM, Iivonen T, et al. Incidence and risk factors of acute traumatic primary patellar dislocation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(4):606-611. (Retrospective database study; 72 patients)
  76. Stefancin JJ, Parker RD. First-time traumatic patellar dislocation: a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;455:93-101. (Systematic review)
  77. Reichman EF. Reduction of the Patellar Dislocation. In: Emergency Medicine Procedures. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2013. (Textbook chapter)
  78. Davenport M, Rosh AJ. Reduction of patellar dislocation. Medscape. Available at: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/109263-overview. Accessed November 10, 2017. (Website)
  79. Mäenpää H, Lehto MU: Patellar dislocation. The long-term results of nonoperative management in 100 patients. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25(2):213-217. (Retrospective review; 100 patients)
  80. Mayer S, Albright JC, Stoneback JW. Pediatric knee dislocations and physeal fractures about the knee. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2015;23(9):571-580. (Review)
  81. Brav EA. Traumatic dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1962;44(6):1115-1134. (Retrospective review; 3 patients)
  82. Hougaard K, Thomsen PB. Traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip--prognostic factors influencing the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1986;106(1):32-35. (Retrospective review; 98 patients)
Publication Information

Caylyne Arnold, DO; Zane Fayos, MD; David Bruner, MD, FAAEM; Dylan Arnold, DO

Publication Date

December 1, 2017

CME Expiration Date

December 31, 2020

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CME Information

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