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References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study is included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the author, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  7. Ida JB, Thompson DM. Pediatric stridor. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2014;47(5):795-819. (Review article)
  8. Mandal A, Kabra SK, Lodha R. Upper airway obstruction in children. Indian J Pediatr. 2015;82(8):737-744. (Review article)
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  39. Ibrahimov M, Yollu U, Akil F, et al. Laryngeal foreign body mimicking croup. J Craniofac Surg. 2013;24(1):e7-e8. (Case report)
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  42. Berg E, Naseri I, Sobol SE. The role of airway fluoroscopy in the evaluation of children with stridor. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134(4):415-418. (Retrospective chart review; 39 patients)
  43. Kulendra K, Mullineux J, McDermott AL, et al. Are contrast swallows a relevant investigation for paediatric stridor? Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270(3):969-973. (Retrospective audit study; 117 cases)
  44. * Cohen S, Avital A, Godfrey S, et al. Suspected foreign body inhalation in children: what are the indications for bronchoscopy? J Pediatr. 2009;155(2):276-280. (Prospective cohort study; 142 patients)
  45. Najada AS, Dahabreh MM. Bronchoscopy findings in children with recurrent and chronic stridor. J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol. 2011;18(1):42-47. (Retrospective chart review; 64 patients)
  46. Fraga JC, Jennings RW, Kim PC. Pediatric tracheomalacia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2016;25(3):156-164. (Review article)
  47. Javia L, Harris MA, Fuller S. Rings, slings, and other tracheal disorders in the neonate. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;21(4):277-284. (Review article)
  48. Dobbie AM, White DR. Laryngomalacia. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60(4):893-902. (Review article)
  49. Cheng J, Smith LP. Endoscopic surgical management of inspiratory stridor in newborns and infants. Am J Otolaryngol. 2015;36(5):697-700. (Consecutive case series with chart review; 30 patients)
  50. Ayari S, Aubertin G, Girschig H, et al. Management of laryngomalacia. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2013;130(1):15-21. (Update article)
  51. * Parkes WJ, Propst EJ. Advances in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of neonates with laryngeal disorders. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;21(4):270-276. (Review article)
  52. Midyat L, Cakir E, Kut A. Upper airway abnormalities detected in children using flexible bronchoscopy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(4):560-563. (Retrospective chart review; 1076 patients)
  53. Rankin I, Wang SM, Waters A, et al. The management of recurrent croup in children. J Laryngol Otol. 2013;127(5):494-500. (Retrospective chart review; 90 patients)
  54. Kwong K, Hoa M, Coticchia JM. Recurrent croup presentation, diagnosis, and management. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28(6):401-407. (Retrospective chart review; 17 patients)
  55. Arslan Z, Cipe FE, Ozmen S, et al. Evaluation of allergic sensitization and gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with recurrent croup. Pediatr Int. 2009;51(5):661-665. (Prospective observational study; 57 patients)
  56. D’Agostino J. Pediatric airway nightmares. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010;28(1):119-126. (Review article)
  57. Diep J, Kam D, Kuenzler KA, et al. Emergent airway management of an uncooperative child with a large retropharyngeal and posterior mediastinal abscess. A A Case Rep. 2016;6(3):61-64. (Case report)
  58. Shah S, Sharieff GQ. Pediatric respiratory infections. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2007;25(4):961-979. (Review article)
  59. Johnson DW. Croup. BMJ Clin Evid. 2014 Sep 29;2014. pii: 0321. (Systematic review)
  60. * Fitzgerald DA. The assessment and management of croup. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2006;7(1):73-81. (Review article)
  61. Russell KF, Liang Y, O’Gorman K, et al. Glucocorticoids for croup. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011(1):CD001955. (Cochrane review; 38 studies)
  62. * Amir L, Hubermann H, Halevi A, et al. Oral betamethasone versus intramuscular dexamethasone for the treatment of mild to moderate viral croup: a prospective, randomized trial. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006;22(8):541-544. (Prospective randomized trial; 52 patients)
  63. Rittichier KK, Ledwith CA. Outpatient treatment of moderate croup with dexamethasone: intramuscular versus oral dosing. Pediatrics. 2000;106(6):1344-1348. (Single-blind prospective study; 277 patients)
  64. Geelhoed GC. Budesonide offers no advantage when added to oral dexamethasone in the treatment of croup. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005;21(6):359-362. (Randomized controlled trial; 72 patients)
  65. Geelhoed GC, Macdonald WB. Oral dexamethasone in the treatment of croup: 0.15 mg/kg versus 0.3 mg/kg versus 0.6 mg/kg. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1995;20(6):362-368. (2 sequential double-blind randomized trials; 60 children in each group)
  66. Chub-Uppakarn S, Sangsupawanich P. A randomized comparison of dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg versus 0.6 mg/kg for the treatment of moderate to severe croup. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71(3):473-477. (Randomized comparison study; 41 patients)
  67. Moraa I, Sturman N, McGuire T, et al. Heliox for croup in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013(12):CD006822. (Cochrane review; 3 randomized controlled trials, 91 patients)
  68. Myers TR. Use of heliox in children. Respir Care. 2006;51(6):619-631. (Review article)
  69. * Kline-Krammes S, Reed C, Giuliano JS Jr, et al. Heliox in children with croup: a strategy to hasten improvement. Air Med J. 2012;31(3):131-137. (Retrospective chart review; 35 patients)
  70. * Bjornson C, Russell K, Vandermeer B, et al. Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013(10):CD006619. (Cochrane review; 8 studies, 225 patients)
  71. Eghbali A, Sabbagh A, Bagheri B, et al. Efficacy of nebulized L-epinephrine for treatment of croup: a randomized, double-blind study. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2016;30(1):70-75. (Randomized double-blind clinical trial; 174 patients)
  72. Moore M, Little P. Humidified air inhalation for treating croup: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2007;24(4):295-301. (Systematic review and meta-analysis; 3 studies, 135 patients)
  73. Cherry JD. Clinical practice. Croup. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(4):384-391. (Clinical practice)
  74. Cooper T, Kuruvilla G, Persad R, et al. Atypical croup: association with airway lesions, atopy, and esophagitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;147(2):209-214. (Case series with chart review; 88 patients)
  75. Tibballs J, Watson T. Symptoms and signs differentiating croup and epiglottitis. J Paediatr Child Health. 2011;47(3):77-82. (Prospective observational study; 203 patients)
  76. Kavanagh KR, Batti JS. Traumatic epiglottitis after foreign body ingestion. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72(6):901-903. (Case report)
  77. Orenstein JB, Thomsen JR, Baker SB. Pneumococcal bacterial tracheitis. Am J Emerg Med. 1991;9(3):243-245. (Case report)
  78. Chan PW, Goh A, Lum L. Severe upper airway obstruction in the tropics requiring intensive care. Pediatr Int. 2001;43(1):53-57. (Retrospective chart review; 56 patients aged < 12 years)
  79. Nagler J, Ruebner RL. Suppurative complications and upper airway obstruction in infectious mononucleosis. J Hosp Med. 2007;2(4):280-282. (Case report)
  80. Glynn FJ, Mackle T, Kinsella J. Upper airway obstruction in infectious mononucleosis. Eur J Emerg Med. 2007;14(1):41-42. (Case report)
  81. Jain V, Singhi S, Desai RV. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as upper airway obstruction. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2003;45(2):135-137. (Case report)
  82. Chan SC, Dawes PJ. The management of severe infectious mononucleosis tonsillitis and upper airway obstruction. J Laryngol Otol. 2001;115(12):973-977. (Retrospective chart review; 36 patients)
  83. Chen TH, Tseng YH, Yang SN. A child with severe stridor. Emerg Med J. 2013;30(7):603. (Case report)
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  86. Sittel C. Pathologies of the larynx and trachea in childhood. GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014;13:Doc09. (Review article)
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  89. Rudders SA, Banerji A, Clark S, et al. Age-related differences in the clinical presentation of food-induced anaphylaxis. J Pediatr. 2011;158(2):326-328. (Retrospective chart review, 605 patients)
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  99. Rosin DF, Handler SD, Potsic WP, et al. Vocal cord paralysis in children. Laryngoscope. 1990;100(11):1174-1179. (Retrospective chart review; 51 patients)
  100. Gimenez LM, Zafra H. Vocal cord dysfunction: an update. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106(4):267-274. (Review article)
  101. Vats A, Worley GA, de Bruyn R, et al. Laryngeal ultrasound to assess vocal fold paralysis in children. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118(6):429-431. (Case series; 55 patients)
  102. Lyons M, Vlastarakos PV, Nikolopoulos TP. Congenital and acquired developmental problems of the upper airway in newborns and infants. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88(12):951-955. (Review article)
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  109. Avelino MG, Fernandes EJ. Balloon laryngoplasty for subglottic stenosis caused by orotracheal intubation at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;18(1):39-42. (Prospective cohort study; 9 patients)
  110. Aubin A, Lescanne E, Pondaven S, et al. Stridor and lingual thyroglossal duct cyst in a newborn. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2011;128(6):321-323. (Case report)
  111. Busino RS, Quraishi HA, Cohen IT. Stridor secondary to a bronchogenic cyst in a neonate. Ear Nose Throat J. 2011;90(11):E8-E10. (Case report)
  112. Cheng J. Isolated subglottic hemangiomas: a potential diagnostic challenge in the absence of a cutaneous clue. Am J Otolaryngol. 2015;36(3):399-401. (Consecutive case series with chart review; 2 patients)
  113. Meier JD, Grimmer JF. Evaluation and management of neck masses in children. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(5):353-358. (Review article)
  114. Licari A, Manca E, Rispoli GA, et al. Congenital vascular rings: a clinical challenge for the pediatrician. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015;50(5):511-524. (Review article)
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  118. Elluru RG, Friess MR, Richter GT, et al. Multicenter evaluation of the effectiveness of systemic propranolol in the treatment of airway hemangiomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;153(3):452-460. (Case series with chart review; 27 patients)
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  120. Hamilton J, Yaneza MM, Clement WA, et al. The prevalence of airway problems in children with Down’s syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;81:1-4. (Retrospective chart review; 239 patients)
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  122. Narayanan S, Funkhouser E. Inpatient hospitalizations for croup. Hosp Pediatr. 2014;4(2):88-92. (Retrospective chart review; 327 patients)
  123. Alqurashi W, Stiell I, Chan K, et al. Epidemiology and clinical predictors of biphasic reactions in children with anaphylaxis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115(3):217-223. (Chart review; 484 patients)
  124. Lee JM, Greenes DS. Biphasic anaphylactic reactions in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2000;106(4):762-766. (Retrospective chart review; 108 patients)
  125. Lieberman P. Biphasic anaphylactic reactions. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;95(3):217-226. (Review article)
  126. Manuyakorn W, Benjaponpitak S, Kamchaisatian W, et al. Pediatric anaphylaxis: triggers, clinical features, and treatment in a tertiary-care hospital. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2015;33(4):281-288. (Retrospective chart review; 160 patients)
  127. Greifer M, Santiago MT, Tsirilakis K, et al. Pediatric patients with chronic cough and recurrent croup: the case for a multidisciplinary approach. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;79(5):749-752. (Retrospective chart review; 40 patients)
 

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