References | Inflammatory Bowel Disease

<< Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Flares in the Emergency Department (Pharmacology CME)


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study is included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. * Loftus EV Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology. 2004;126(6):1504-1517. (Review)
  2. Ye Y, Pang Z, Chen W, et al. The epidemiology and risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(12):22529-22542. (Review)
  3. Molodecky NA, Soon IS, Rabi DM, et al. Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(1):46-54. (Review)
  4. Longobardi T, Jacobs P, Bernstein CN. Utilization of health care resources by individuals with inflammatory bowel disease in the United States: a profile of time since diagnosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99(4):650-655. (Survey; 256 adults)
  5. Crohn's and Colitis Foundation website. Available at: Accessed October 10, 2017. (Patient-centered resource website)
  6. Fries W, Comunale S. Ulcerative colitis: pathogenesis. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12:(10):1373-1382. (Review)
  7. Fiocchi C. Inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis: where are we? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;30(Suppl1):12-18. (Review)
  8. Danese S, Fiocchi C. Ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(18):1713-1725. (Review)
  9. García Rodríguez LA, Ruigómez A, Panés J. Acute gastroenteritis is followed by an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2006;130(6):1588-1594. (Cohort study; 41,013 patients)
  10. Gradel KO, Nielsen HL, Schønheyder HC, et al. Increased short- and long-term risk of inflammatory bowel disease after Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(2):495-501. (Cohort study; 13,148 patients)
  11. Mekhjian HS, Switz DM, Melnyk CS, et al. Clinical features and natural history of Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology. 1979;77(4 Pt 2):898-906. (Retrospective; 1084 patients)
  12. Sandborn WJ, Fazio VW, Feagan BG, et al. AGA technical review on perianal Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology. 2003;125(5):1508-1530. (Review)
  13. Cosnes J, Cattan S, Blain S, et al. Long-term evolution of disease behavior of Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2002;8(4):244-250. (Retrospective, 2002 patients; prospective, 646 patients)
  14. Huber W, Herrmann G, Schuster T, et al. Life-threatening complications of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis: a systematic analysis of admissions to an ICU during 18 years. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010;135:668-674. [German] (Retrospective; 36 patients)
  15. Mady R, Grover W, Butrus S. Ocular complications of inflammatory bowel disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 2015;2015:438402. (Review)
  16. Huang V, Mishra R, Thanabalan R, et al. Patient awareness of extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2013;7(8):e318-e324. (Cross-sectional survey; 299 patients)
  17. Pardi DS, Tremaine WJ, Sandborn WJ, et al. Renal and urologic complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93(4):504-514. (Review)
  18. Varda BK, McNabb-Baltar J, Sood A. et al. Urolithiasis and urinary tract infection among patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a review of US emergency department visits between 2006 and 2009. Urology. 2015;85(4):764-770. (Retrospective; 14,352 patients)
  19. Zhang FM, Xu CF, Shan GD, et al. Is gallstone disease associated with inflammatory bowel diseases? A meta-analysis. J Dig Dis. 2015;16(11):634-641. (Meta-analysis; 5 studies)
  20. Serrano-Montalbán B, Arias Á, Friginal-Ruiz AB, et al. The use of the WHO Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX®) tool in predicting risk of fractures in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review. J Clin Densitom. 2017;20(2):180-187. (Systematic review; 146 references)
  21. * Fumery M, Xiaocang C, Dauchet L, et al. Thromboembolic events and cardiovascular mortality in inflammatory bowel diseases: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Crohns Colitis. 2014;8(6):469-479. (Meta-analysis, review; 33 studies, 207,814 IBD patients)
  22. Lindor KD, Kowdley KV, Harrison ME; American College of Gastroenterology. ACG clinical guideline: primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015;110(5):646-659. (Review and clinical guideline)
  23. Fraga M, Fournier N, Safroneeva E, et al; Swiss IBD Cohort Study Group. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study: prevalence, risk factors, and long-term follow-up. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;29(1):91-97. (Cohort study; 2744 patients)
  24. Bollen L, Vande Casteele N, Ballet V, et al. Thromboembolism as an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;28(1):1-7. (Retrospective; 83 patients)
  25. Langholz E, Munkholm P, Davidsen M, et al. Course of ulcerative colitis: analysis of changes in disease activity over years. Gastroenterology. 1994;107(1):3-11. (Prospective; 1161 patients, 25-year follow-up)
  26. Lapidus A, Bernell O, Hellers G, et al. Clinical course of colorectal Crohn’s disease: a 35-year follow-up study of 507 patients. Gastroenterology. 1998;114(6):1151-1160. (Retrospective cohort study; 507 patients)
  27. Magro F, Rodrigues A, Vieira AI, et al. Review of the disease course among adult ulcerative colitis population-based longitudinal cohorts. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18(3):573-583. (Review)
  28. Torres J, Caprioli F, Katsanos KH, et al. Predicting outcomes to optimize disease management in inflammatory bowel diseases. J Crohns Colitis. 2016;10(12):1385-1394. (Review)
  29. * Huang M, Rose E. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in the emergency department: managing flares and long-term complications. Pediatr Emerg Med Pract. 2014;11(7):1-20. (Review)
  30. Tontini GE, Vecchi M, Pastorelli L, et al. Differential diagnosis in inflammatory bowel disease colitis: state of the art and future perspectives. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(1):21-46. (Review)
  31. Stange EF, Travis SPL, Vermeire S, et al. European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis: definitions and diagnosis. J Crohns Colitis. 2008;2(1):1-23. (Review)
  32. Cappello M, Morreale GC. The role of laboratory tests in Crohn’s disease. Clin Med Insights Gastroenterol. 2016;9:51-62. (Review)
  33. Shine B, Berghouse L, Jones JE, et al. C-reactive protein as an aid in the differentiation of functional and inflammatory bowel disorders. Clin Chim Acta. 1985;148(2):105-109. (Prospective; 82 patients)
  34. Poullis AP, Zar S, Sundaram KK, et al. A new, highly sensitive assay for C-reactive protein can aid the differentiation of inflammatory bowel disorders from constipation-and diarrhoea-predominant functional bowel disorders. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;14(4):409-412. (Prospective; 224 patients)
  35. Alper A, Zhang L, Pashankar DS. Correlation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein with pediatric inflammatory bowel disease activity. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;65(2):e25-e27. (Retrospective; 135 patients)
  36. Vermeire S, Van Assche G, Rutgeerts P. Laboratory markers in IBD: useful, magic, or unnecessary toys? Gut. 2006;55(3):426-431. (Review)
  37. Fagan EA, Dyck RF, Maton PN, et al. Serum levels of C-reactive protein in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Eur J Clin Invest. 1982;12(4):351-359. (Prospective; 104 patients)
  38. van Rheenen PF, Van de Vijver E, Fidler V. Faecal calprotectin for screening of patients with suspected inflammatory bowel disease: diagnostic meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;15(341):c3369. (Meta-analysis; 6 adult studies [n=670], 7 pediatric studies [n=371])
  39. Abej E, El-Matary W, Singh H, et al. The utility of fecal calprotectin in the real-world clinical care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016(2016):2483261. (Prospective; 240 patients)
  40. Griffey RT, Fowler KJ, Theilen A, et al. Considerations in imaging among emergency department patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Ann Emerg Med. 2017;69(5):587-599. (Review)
  41. Quezada SM, Cross RK, Association of age at diagnosis and ulcerative colitis phenotype. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57(9):2402-2407. (Retrospective; 260 patients)
  42. Gasche C, Grundtner P. Genotypes and phenotypes in Crohn’s disease: do they help in clinical management? Gut. 2005;54(1):162-167. (Review)
  43. Paulsen SR, Huprich JE, Fletcher JG, et al. CT enterography as a diagnostic tool in evaluating small bowel disorders: review of clinical experience with over 700 cases. Radiographics. 2006;26(3):641-657. (Review)
  44. Bodily KD, Fletcher JG, Solem CA, et al. Crohn disease: mural attenuation and thickness at contrast-enhanced CT enterography--correlation with endoscopic and histologic findings of inflammation. Radiology. 2006;238(2):505-516. (Retrospective; 96 patients)
  45. Ahmed O, Rodrigues DM, Nguyen GC. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in Crohn’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016(2016):7857352. (Meta-analysis; 19 studies, 1020 patients)
  46. Pozza A1, Scarpa M, Lacognata C, et al. Magnetic resonance enterography for Crohn’s disease: what the surgeon can take home. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15(10):1689-1698. (Retrospective; 35 patients)
  47. Govani SM, Guentner AS, Waljee AK, et al. Risk stratification of emergency room patients with Crohn’s disease could reduce computed tomography use by nearly half. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12(10):1702-1707. (Retrospective; 613 patients)
  48. Jung YS, Park DI, Hong SN, et al. Predictors of urgent findings on abdominopelvic CT in patients with Crohn’s disease presenting to the emergency department. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60(4):929-935. (Retrospective; 266 CTs done)
  49. Yarur AJ, Mandalia AB, Dauer RM, et al. Predictive factors for clinically actionable computed tomography findings in inflammatory bowel disease patients seen in the emergency department with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. J Crohn’s Colitis. 2014;8(6):504-512. (Cross-sectional study; 354 patients)
  50. Kerner C, Carey K, Mills AM, et al. Use of abdominopelvic computed tomography in emergency departments and rates of urgent diagnoses in Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;9(6):1179-1185. (Retrospective; 648 adults)
  51. * Sandborn WJ. Crohn’s disease evaluation and treatment: clinical decision tool. Gastroenterology. 2014;147(3):702-705. (Consensus management guideline)
  52. Panaccione R, Colombel JF, Louis E, et al. Evolving definitions of remission in Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19(8):1645-1653. (Review, opinion)
  53. * Hwang JM, Varma MG. Surgery for inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(17):2678-2690. (Review)
  54. Gardiner KR, Desari BV. Operative management of small bowel Crohn’s disease. Surg Clin North Am. 2007;87(3):587-610. (Review)
  55. Hurst RD, Molinari M, Chung TP, et al. Prospective study of the features, indications, and surgical treatment in 513 consecutive patients affected by Crohn’s disease. Surgery. 1997;122(4):661-667. (Prospective; 513 patients)
  56. Michelassi F, Balestracci T, Chappell R, et al. Primary and recurrent Crohn’s disease. Experience with 1379 patients. Ann Surg. 1991;214(3):230-238. (Retrospective; 1379 patients)
  57. Fonseca AL, Schuster KM, Maung AA, et al. Routine nasogastric decompression in small bowel obstruction: is it really necessary? Am Surg. 2013;79(4):422-428. (Retrospective chart review; 290 patients)
  58. Broe PJ, Bayless TM, Cameron JL. Crohn’s disease: are enteroenteral fistulas an indication for surgery? Surgery. 1982;91(3):249-253. (Retrospective; 64 patients)
  59. Present DH, Rutgeerts P, Targan S, et al. Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1398-1405. (Randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled; 94 patients)
  60. Sands BE, Anderson FH, Bernstein CN, et al. Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(9):876-885. (Multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled; 306 patients)
  61. Ribeiro MB, Greenstein AJ, Yamazaki Y, et al. Intra-abdominal abscesses in regional enteritis. Ann Surg. 1991;213(1):32-36. (Retrospective; 610 patients)
  62. Garcia JC, Persky SE, Bonis PA, et al. Abscesses in Crohn’s disease: outcome of medical versus surgical treatment. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001;32(5):409-412. (Retrospective; 51 patients)
  63. Gutierrez A, Lee H, Sands BE. Outcome of surgical versus percutaneous drainage of abdominal and pelvic abscesses in Crohn‘s disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(10):2283-2289. (Prospective; 66 patient encounters)
  64. Kronberger IE, Graziadei IW, Vogel W. Small bowel adenocarcinoma in Crohn’s disease: a case report and review of literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12(18):1317-1320. (Case report with literature review)
  65. Yamamoto T. Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn’s disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(26):3971-3979. (Review)
  66. Collins PD, Mpofu C, Watson AJ, et al. Strategies for detecting colon cancer and/or dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;CD000279. (Systematic review)
  67. Solomon MJ. Fistulae and abscesses in symptomatic perianal Crohn’s disease. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1996;11(5):222-226. (Prospective)
  68. Fleshner PR, Schoetz DJ Jr, Roberts PL, et al. Anal fissure in Crohn’s disease: a plea for aggressive management. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995;38(11):1137-1143. (Retrospective; 66 patients)
  69. Wolkomir AF, Luchtefeld MA. Surgery for symptomatic hemorrhoids and anal fissures in Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36(6):545-547. (40 patients)
  70. Grucela A, Steinhagen RM. Current surgical management of ulcerative colitis. Mt Sinai J Med. 2009;76(6):606-612. (Review)
  71. Cohen JL, Strong SA, Hyman NH, et al; Standards Practice Task Force American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Practice parameters for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48(11):1997-2009. (Management guideline)
  72. Metcalf AM. Elective and emergent operative management of ulcerative colitis. Surg Clin North Am. 2007;87(3):633-641. (Review)
  73. Truelove SC, Witts LJ. Cortisone in ulcerative colitis: final report on a therapeutic trial. Br Med J. 1955;2(4947):1041-1048. (Preliminary report; historical)
  74. * Vadivelu N, Schermer E, Kodumudi V, et al. Role of ketamine for analgesia in adults and children. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2016;32(3):298-306. (Review)
  75. Lichtenstein L, Ron Y, Kivity S, et al. Infliximab-related infusion reactions: systematic review. J Crohn's Colitis. 2015;9(9):806-815. (Systematic review)
  76. Wilson JC, Furlano RI, Jick SS, et al. A population-based study examining the risk of malignancy in patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastroenterol. 2016;51(11):1050-1062. (Registry study; 39,294 patients)
  77. Singh S, Nagpal SJ, Murad MH, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12(2):210-218. (Systematic review, meta-analysis; 12 studies, 172,837 patients)
  78. Pedersen N, Duricova D, Elkjaer M, et al. Risk of extra-intestinal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(7):1480-1487. (Meta-analysis; 8 studies, 17,052 patients)
  79. * American Gastroenterological Association. Managing CRC Risk in IBD Patients. Available at: Accessed October 10, 2017. (Practice management guideline)
  80. Regueiro M, Greer JB, Szigethy E. Etiology and treatment of pain and psychosocial issues in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(2):430-439. (Review)
  81. Szigethy E, McLafferty L, Goyal A. Inflammatory bowel disease. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2010;19(2):301-318. (Review)
  82. Rosenblatt E, Kane S. Sex-specific issues in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (NY). 2015;11(9):592-601. (Review)
  83. Sandborn WJ, Loftus EV Jr, Colombel JF, et al. Evaluation of serologic disease markers in a population-based cohort of patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2001;7(3):192-201. (Prospective; 290 patients)
  84. Benor S, Russell GH, Silver M, et al. Shortcomings of the inflammatory bowel disease Serology 7 panel. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6):1230-1236. (Retrospective; 304 patients)
  85. Nielsen OH, Gionchetti P, Ainsworth M, et al. Rectal dialysate and fecal concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94(10):2923-2928. (Prospective; 76 patients)
  86. Bonneau J, Dumestre-Perard C, Rinaudo-Gaujous M, et al. Systematic review: new serological markers (anti-glycan, anti-GP2, anti-GM-CSF Ab) in the prediction of IBD patient outcomes. Autoimmun Rev. 2015;14(3):231-245. (Systematic review)
Publication Information

Michael D. Burg, MD; Steven T. Riccoboni, MD

Publication Date

November 1, 2017

CME Expiration Date

November 30, 2020

CME Credits

4 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™, 4 ACEP Category I Credits, 4 AAFP Prescribed Credits, 4 AOA Category 2-A or 2-B Credits.
Specialty CME Credits: Included as part of the 4 credits, this CME activity is eligible for 1 Pharmacology CME credit

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