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<< Nonaccidental Injury in Pediatric Patients: Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment (Trauma CME)

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study is included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Child Maltreatment 2015. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children Youth and Families Children’s Bureau; 2015. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/cm2015.pdf Accessed June 15, 2017. (Government report)
  2. Afifi TO, Mather A, Boman J, et al. Childhood adversity and personality disorders: results from a nationally representative population-based study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(6):814-822. (Retrospective cohort; 34,653 patients)
  3. MacMillan HL, Jamieson E, Walsh CA. Reported contact with child protection services among those reporting child physical and sexual abuse: results from a community survey. Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27(12):1397-1408. (Community-based survey; 9953 responses)
  4. Hussey JM, Chang JJ, Kotch JB. Child maltreatment in the United States: prevalence, risk factors, and adolescent health consequences. Pediatrics. 2006;118(3):933-942. (National longitudinal survey; 15,197 responses)
  5. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Woodward LJ. The stability of child abuse reports: a longitudinal study of the reporting behaviour of young adults. Psychol Med. 2000;30(3):529-544. (Longitudinal survey; 1265 patients)
  6. * King AJ, Farst KJ, Jaeger MW, et al. Maltreatment-related emergency department visits among children 0 to 3 years old in the United States. Child Maltreat. 2015;20(3):151-161. (Retrospective cohort; 10,095 abused children)
  7. Palazzi S, de Girolamo G, Liverani T. Observational study of suspected maltreatment in Italian paediatric emergency departments. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(4):406-410. (Retrospective cohort; 10,175 children assessed for abuse)
  8. Bleeker G, Vet NJ, Haumann TJ, et al. [Increase in the number of reported cases of child abuse following adoption of a structured approach in the VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, in the period 2001-2004]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149(29):1620-1624. (Retrospective cohort; 220 cases)
  9. Keshavarz R, Kawashima R, Low C. Child abuse and neglect presentations to a pediatric emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2002;23(4):341-345. (Retrospective cohort; 105 cases)
  10. King WK, Kiesel EL, Simon HK. Child abuse fatalities: are we missing opportunities for intervention? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006;22(4):211-214. (Retrospective cohort; 44 cases)
  11. * Jenny C, Hymel KP, Ritzen A, et al. Analysis of missed cases of abusive head trauma. JAMA. 1999;281(7):621-626. (Retrospective cohort; 173 cases)
  12. Carty H, Pierce A. Non-accidental injury: a retrospective analysis of a large cohort. Eur Radiol. 2002;12(12):2919-2925. (Retrospective cohort; 467 cases)
  13. Thorpe EL, Zuckerbraun NS, Wolford JE, et al. Missed opportunities to diagnose child physical abuse. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014;30(11):771-776. (Retrospective cohort; 77 cases)
  14. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) 2010. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families; 2011. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/resource/capta2010. Accessed June 15, 2017. (Documentation of federal law)
  15. Sedlak AJ, Mettenburg J, Basena M, et al. Fourth national incidence study of child abuse and neglect (NIS–4): report to Congress. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families; 2010. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/opre/resource/fourth-national-incidence-study-of-child-abuse-and-neglect-nis-4-report-to. Accessed June 15, 2017. (Government report)
  16. Niska R, Bhuiya F, Xu J. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2007 emergency department summary. Natl Health Stat Report. 2010(26):1-31. (National survey on United States ED visits in 2007; 117 million ED visits)
  17. Gausche-Hill M, Schmitz C, Lewis RJ. Pediatric preparedness of US emergency departments: a 2003 survey. Pediatrics. 2007;120(6):1229-1237. (Survey; 1489 cases)
  18. * Ravichandiran N, Schuh S, Bejuk M, et al. Delayed identification of pediatric abuse-related fractures. Pediatrics. 2010;125(1):60-66. (Retrospective cohort; 258 cases)
  19. Trokel M, Waddimba A, Griffith J, et al. Variation in the diagnosis of child abuse in severely injured infants. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3):722-728. (Retrospective cohort; 2253 cases)
  20. Ziegler DS, Sammut J, Piper AC. Assessment and follow-up of suspected child abuse in preschool children with fractures seen in a general hospital emergency department. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005;41(5-6):251-255. (Retrospective cohort; 98 cases)
  21. * Schmitt BD. Seven deadly sins of childhood: advising parents about difficult developmental phases. Child Abuse Negl. 1987;11(3):421-432. (Review article)
  22. Brewster AL, Nelson JP, Hymel KP, et al. Victim, perpetrator, family, and incident characteristics of 32 infant maltreatment deaths in the United States Air Force. Child Abuse Negl. 1998;22(2):91-101. (Retrospective cohort; 32 patients)
  23. Krugman RD. Fatal child abuse: analysis of 24 cases. Pediatrician. 1983;12(1):68-72. (Retrospective cohort; 24 cases)
  24. * Barr RG, Trent RB, Cross J. Age-related incidence curve of hospitalized shaken baby syndrome cases: convergent evidence for crying as a trigger to shaking. Child Abuse Negl. 2006;30(1):7-16. (Retrospective case review; 273 patients)
  25. Reijneveld SA, van der Wal MF, Brugman E, et al. Infant crying and abuse. Lancet. 2004;364(9442):1340-1342. (Prospective cohort; 3259 patients)
  26. Flaherty EG, Stirling J Jr. Clinical report--the pediatrician’s role in child maltreatment prevention. Pediatrics. 2010;126(4):833-841. (Review article)
  27. Sullivan PM, Knutson JF. The association between child maltreatment and disabilities in a hospital-based epidemiological study. Child Abuse Negl. 1998;22(4):271-288. (Retrospective cohort; 3881 patients)
  28. Sidebotham P, Heron J. Child maltreatment in the “children of the nineties”: a cohort study of risk factors. Child Abuse Negl. 2006;30(5):497-522. (Prospective cohort; 14,256 patients)
  29. Oates RK, Davis AA, Ryan MG. Predictive factors for child abuse. Aust Paediatr J. 1980;16(4):239-243. (Retrospective cohort; 56 patients)
  30. Kelleher K, Chaffin M, Hollenberg J, et al. Alcohol and drug disorders among physically abusive and neglectful parents in a community-based sample. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(10):1586-1590. (Nested case-control study; 11,662 patients)
  31. Cadzow SP, Armstrong KL, Fraser JA. Stressed parents with infants: reassessing physical abuse risk factors. Child Abuse Negl. 1999;23(9):845-853. (Randomized controlled trial; 151 patients)
  32. Paulson JF, Dauber S, Leiferman JA. Individual and combined effects of postpartum depression in mothers and fathers on parenting behavior. Pediatrics. 2006;118(2):659-668. (National longitudinal survey; 5089 families)
  33. * Brown J, Cohen P, Johnson JG, et al. A longitudinal analysis of risk factors for child maltreatment: findings of a 17-year prospective study of officially recorded and self-reported child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse Negl. 1998;22(11):1065-1078. (Prospective cohort; 644 families)
  34. Burrell B, Thompson B, Sexton D. Predicting child abuse potential across family types. Child Abuse Negl. 1994;18(12):1039-1049. (Case control study; 113 patients)
  35. Stiffman MN, Schnitzer PG, Adam P, et al. Household composition and risk of fatal child maltreatment. Pediatrics. 2002;109(4):615-621. (Population-based case-control study; 471 patients)
  36. Knapp JF, Dowd MD. Family violence: implications for the pediatrician. Pediatr Rev. 1998;19(9):316-321. (Review article)
  37. Wood JN, Hall M, Schilling S, et al. Disparities in the evaluation and diagnosis of abuse among infants with traumatic brain injury. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):408-414. (Retrospective cohort; 3063 patients)
  38. Schwartz KA, Metz J, Feldman K, et al. Cutaneous findings mistaken for physical abuse: present but not pervasive. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014;31(2):146-155. (Prospective cohort; 137 patients)
  39. Christian CW, States LJ. Medical mimics of child abuse. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017;208(5):982-990. (Review article)
  40. Bays J. Conditions mistaken for child physical abuse. In: Reece R, Ludwig S, eds. 2nd ed. Child Abuse and Neglect: Medical Diagnosis and Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:177-206. (Book review)
  41. Leventhal JM, Griffin D, Duncan KO, et al. Laxative-induced dermatitis of the buttocks incorrectly suspected to be abusive burns. Pediatrics. 2001;107(1):178-179. (Retrospective case reports; 4 patients)
  42. Stewart GM, Rosenberg NM. Conditions mistaken for child abuse: part II. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1996;12(3):217-221. (Review article)
  43. Bronicki LM, Stevenson RE, Spranger JW. Beyond osteogenesis imperfecta: causes of fractures during infancy and childhood. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2015;169(4):314-327. (Review article)
  44. Topor LS, Borus JS, Aspinwall S, et al. Fractures among inpatients in a pediatric hospital. Hosp Pediatr. 2016;6(3):143-150. (Retrospective cohort; 56 patients)
  45. Pepin MG, Byers PH. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2015;169(4):307-313. (Review article)
  46. Chapman T, Sugar N, Done S, et al. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40(7):1184-1189. (Retrospective cohort; 45 children)
  47. Shore RM, Chesney RW. Rickets: part I. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43(2):140-151. (Review article)
  48. Shore RM, Chesney RW. Rickets: part II. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43(2):152-172. (Review article)
  49. Perez-Rossello JM, McDonald AG, Rosenberg AE, et al. Absence of rickets in infants with fatal abusive head trauma and classic metaphyseal lesions. Radiology. 2015;275(3):810-821. (Retrospective cohort; 46 patients)
  50. Al-Habdan I. Birth-related fractures of long bones. Indian J Pediatr. 2003;70(12):959-960. (Retrospective cohort; 21 fractures)
  51. Walters MM, Forbes PW, Buonomo C, et al. Healing patterns of clavicular birth injuries as a guide to fracture dating in cases of possible infant abuse. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44(10):1224-1229. (Retrospective cohort; 131 radiographs)
  52. McKeag H, Christian CW, Rubin D, et al. Subdural hemorrhage in pediatric patients with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013;11(4):438-444. (Retrospective cohort; 177 patients)
  53. Vester ME, Bilo RA, Karst WA, et al. Subdural hematomas: glutaric aciduria type 1 or abusive head trauma? A systematic review. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2015;11(3):405-415. (Review article)
  54. Levin AV. Retinal hemorrhages: advances in understanding. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009;56(2):333-344. (Review article)
  55. Pham H, Enzenauer RW, Elder JE, et al. Retinal hemorrhage after cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2013;34(2):122-124. (Prospective cohort; 22 patients)
  56. Franke I, Pingen A, Schiffmann H, et al. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques. Child Abuse Negl. 2014;38(7):1267-1274. (Retrospective cohort; 80 patients)
  57. Mandated reporters of child abuse and neglect: summary of state laws. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families; 2008. https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/mandaall.pdf. Accessed June 15, 2017. (State survey)
  58. Leventhal JM, Asnes AG, Pavlovic L, et al. Diagnosing abusive head trauma: the challenges faced by clinicians. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44 Suppl 4:S537-S542. (Review article)
  59. Asnes AG, Leventhal JM. Managing child abuse: general principles. Pediatr Rev. 2010;31(2):47-55. (Review article)
  60. 60. Rubin DM, Christian CW, Bilaniuk LT, et al. Occult head injury in high-risk abused children. Pediatrics. 2003;111(6 Pt 1):1382-1386. (Retrospective cohort; 65 patients)
  61. Laskey AL, Holsti M, Runyan DK, et al. Occult head trauma in young suspected victims of physical abuse. J Pediatr. 2004;144(6):719-722. (Retrospective cohort; 51 patients)
  62. Emerson MV, Jakobs E, Green WR. Ocular autopsy and histopathologic features of child abuse. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(7):1384-1394. (Retrospective case series; 118 patients)
  63. Levin AV, Christian CW. The eye examination in the evaluation of child abuse. Pediatrics. 2010;126(2):376-380. (Review article)
  64. * Lindberg D, Makoroff K, Harper N, et al. Utility of hepatic transaminases to recognize abuse in children. Pediatrics. 2009;124(2):509-516. (Prospective observational cohort; 1272 patients)
  65. Lindberg DM, Berger RP, Lane WG. PECARN abdominal injury rule should exclude potentially abused children. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;62(3):276-277. (Letter to the editor)
  66. Baxter AL, Lindberg DM, Burke BL, et al. Hepatic enzyme decline after pediatric blunt trauma: a tool for timing child abuse? Child Abuse Negl. 2008;32(9):838-845. (Retrospective cohort; 176 patients)
  67. Christian CW. The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse. Pediatrics. 2015;135(5):e1337-e1354. (Review article)
  68. * Sugar NF, Taylor JA, Feldman KW. Bruises in infants and toddlers: those who don’t cruise rarely bruise. Puget Sound Pediatric Research Network. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153(4):399-403. (Prospective cohort study; 973 patients)
  69. Carpenter RF. The prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies. Arch Dis Child. 1999;80(4):363-366. (Prospective cohort study; 177 patients)
  70. Pierce MC, Magana JN, Kaczor K, et al. The prevalence of bruising among infants in pediatric emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2016;67(1):1-8. (Prospective observational cohort; 2488 patients)
  71. Labbe J, Caouette G. Recent skin injuries in normal children. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):271-276. (Prospective cohort study; 1467 subjects)
  72. * Sheets LK, Leach ME, Koszewski IJ, et al. Sentinel injuries in infants evaluated for child physical abuse. Pediatrics. 2013;131(4):701-707. (Retrospective case control study; 300 patients)
  73. Petska HW, Sheets LK, Knox BL. Facial bruising as a precursor to abusive head trauma. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2013;52(1):86-88. (Review article)
  74. Pierce MC, Smith S, Kaczor K. Bruising in infants: those with a bruise may be abused. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25(12):845-847. (Case series; 3 cases)
  75. Thackeray JD. Frena tears and abusive head injury: a cautionary tale. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23(10):735-737. (Case series; 3 cases)
  76. Naidoo S. A profile of the oro-facial injuries in child physical abuse at a children’s hospital. Child Abuse Negl. 2000;24(4):521-534. (Retrospective case review; 300 cases)
  77. Harper NS, Feldman KW, Sugar NF, et al. Additional injuries in young infants with concern for abuse and apparently isolated bruises. J Pediatr. 2014;165(2):383-388.e1. (Prospective observational cohort; 2890 patients)
  78. Maguire S, Mann MK, Sibert J, et al. Are there patterns of bruising in childhood which are diagnostic or suggestive of abuse? A systematic review. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(2):182-186. (Systematic review; 23 studies; 7 nonabusive, 14 abusive, 2 both)
  79. * Pierce MC, Kaczor K, Aldridge S, et al. Bruising characteristics discriminating physical child abuse from accidental trauma. Pediatrics. 2010;125(1):67-74. (Prospective case control study; 95 subjects)
  80. Kemp AM, Maguire SA, Nuttall D, et al. Bruising in children who are assessed for suspected physical abuse. Arch Dis Child. 2014;99(2):108-113. (Cross sectional study; 519 patients)
  81. Maguire S, Mann MK, Sibert J, et al. Can you age bruises accurately in children? A systematic review. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(2):187-189. (Systematic review; 167 studies reviewed, 3 included)
  82. Jessee SA. Detecting and reporting child maltreatment--dentists’ obligations. Gen Dent. 1994;42(3):218-221. (Review article)
  83. McNeese MC. When to suspect child abuse. Am Fam Physician. 1982;25(6):190-197. (Review article)
  84. Macintyre DR, Jones GM, Pinckney RC. The role of the dental practitioner in the management of non-accidental injury to children. Br Dent J. 1986;161(3):108-110. (Review article)
  85. Maguire S, Hunter B, Hunter L, et al. Diagnosing abuse: a systematic review of torn frenum and other intra-oral injuries. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92(12):1113-1117. (Systematic review; 9 studies, 27 children)
  86. Lopez MR, Abd-Allah S, Deming DD, et al. Oral, jaw, and neck injury in infants and children: from abusive trauma or intubation? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014;30(5):305-310. (Prospective observational study; 105 patients)
  87. Kidd AJ, Beattie TF, Campbell-Hewson G. Frenal injury in children is not pathognomic of non-accidental injury. Emerg Med J. 2010;27(1):52. (Retrospective cohort; 21 patients)
  88. Chester DL, Jose RM, Aldlyami E, et al. Non-accidental burns in children--are we neglecting neglect? Burns. 2006;32(2):222-228. (Retrospective cohort; 436 patients)
  89. Hayek SN, Wibbenmeyer LA, Kealey LD, et al. The efficacy of hair and urine toxicology screening on the detection of child abuse by burning. J Burn Care Res. 2009;30(4):587-592. (Retrospective cohort analysis; 263 patients)
  90. Shah A, Suresh S, Thomas R, et al. Epidemiology and profile of pediatric burns in a large referral center. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011;50(5):391-395. (Prospective cohort; 236 patients)
  91. Wibbenmeyer L, Liao J, Heard J, et al. Factors related to child maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries. J Burn Care Res. 2014;35(5):374-381. (Prospective cohort; 68 patients)
  92. Purdue GF, Hunt JL, Prescott PR. Child abuse by burning--an index of suspicion. J Trauma. 1988;28(2):221-224. (Prospective cohort; 71 patients)
  93. Thombs BD. Patient and injury characteristics, mortality risk, and length of stay related to child abuse by burning: evidence from a national sample of 15,802 pediatric admissions. Ann Surg. 2008;247(3):519-523. (Retrospective cohort; 15,802 patients)
  94. Maguire S, Moynihan S, Mann M, et al. A systematic review of the features that indicate intentional scalds in children. Burns. 2008;34(8):1072-1081. (Systematic review; 258 studies reviewed, 26 included)
  95. Pawlik MC, Kemp A, Maguire S, et al. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries. Child Abuse Negl. 2016;55:52-61. (Retrospective cohort; 215 patients)
  96. Peck MD, Priolo-Kapel D. Child abuse by burning: a review of the literature and an algorithm for medical investigations. J Trauma. 2002;53(5):1013-1022. (Review article)
  97. Seifert D, Krohn J, Larson M, et al. Violence against children: further evidence suggesting a relationship between burns, scalds, and the additional injuries. Int J Legal Med. 2010;124(1):49-54. (Retrospective cohort; 20 patients)
  98. Degraw M, Hicks RA, Lindberg D. Incidence of fractures among children with burns with concern regarding abuse. Pediatrics. 2010;125(2):e295-e299. (Retrospective cohort; 1676 patients)
  99. Fagen KE, Shalaby-Rana E, Jackson AM. Frequency of skeletal injuries in children with inflicted burns. Pediatr Radiol. 2015;45(3):396-401. (Retrospective cohort; 142 patients)
  100. Christian CW, Block R. Abusive head trauma in infants and children. Pediatrics. 2009;123(5):1409-1411. (Review article)
  101. Hinds T, Shalaby-Rana E, Jackson AM, et al. Aspects of abuse: abusive head trauma. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2015;45(3):71-79. (Review article)
  102. Narang S, Clarke J. Abusive head trauma: past, present, and future. J Child Neurol. 2014;29(12):1747-1756. (Review article)
  103. Chiesa A, Duhaime AC. Abusive head trauma. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009;56(2):317-331. (Review article)
  104. Niederkrotenthaler T, Xu L, Parks SE, et al. Descriptive factors of abusive head trauma in young children--United States, 2000-2009. Child Abuse Negl. 2013;37(7):446-455. (Retrospective cohort; 32,942 patients)
  105. Acker SN, Roach JP, Partrick DA, et al. Beyond morbidity and mortality: the social and legal outcomes of non-accidental trauma. J Pediatr Surg. 2015;50(4):604-607. (Retrospective cohort; 254 patients)
  106. Xiang J, Shi J, Wheeler KK, et al. Paediatric patients with abusive head trauma treated in US emergency departments, 2006-2009. Brain Inj. 2013;27(13-14):1555-1561. (Retrospective cohort; 10,773 patients)
  107. Nuno M, Pelissier L, Varshneya K, et al. Outcomes and factors associated with infant abusive head trauma in the US. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015:1-8. (Retrospective cohort; 5195 patients)
  108. Starling SP, Holden JR, Jenny C. Abusive head trauma: the relationship of perpetrators to their victims. Pediatrics. 1995;95(2):259-262. (Retrospective cohort; 151 cases)
  109. Adamsbaum C, Grabar S, Mejean N, et al. Abusive head trauma: judicial admissions highlight violent and repetitive shaking. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):546-555. (Retrospective observational cohort; 112 cases)
  110. Adamsbaum C, Morel B, Ducot B, et al. Dating the abusive head trauma episode and perpetrator statements: key points for imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44 Suppl 4:S578-S588. (Review article)
  111. De Leeuw M, Beuls EA, Jorens PG, et al. History of an abusive head trauma including a lucid interval and a retinal hemorrhage is most likely false. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2013;34(3):271-276. (Retrospective case control study; 47 cases)
  112. Starling SP, Patel S, Burke BL, et al. Analysis of perpetrator admissions to inflicted traumatic brain injury in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(5):454-458. (Retrospective cohort; 171 patients)
  113. Kemp A, Cowley L, Maguire S. Spinal injuries in abusive head trauma: patterns and recommendations. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44 Suppl 4:S604-S612. (Review article)
  114. Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn T, Boos S, Spivack B, et al. Educational paper: Abusive head trauma part I. Clinical aspects. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171(3):415-423. (Review article)
  115. Hettler J, Greenes DS. Can the initial history predict whether a child with a head injury has been abused? Pediatrics. 2003;111(3):602-607. (Retrospective case-control study; 163 cases)
  116. Thompson A, Bertocci G, Pierce MC. Assessment of injury potential in pediatric bed fall experiments using an anthropomorphic test device. Accid Anal Prev. 2013;50:16-24. (Biomechanical study)
  117. Joffe M, Ludwig S. Stairway injuries in children. Pediatrics. 1988;82(3 Pt 2):457-461. (Prospective cohort; 363 patients)
  118. Helfer RE, Slovis TL, Black M. Injuries resulting when small children fall out of bed. Pediatrics. 1977;60(4):533-535. (Retrospective survey cohort; 161 patients)
  119. Case ME. Accidental traumatic head injury in infants and young children. Brain Pathol. 2008;18(4):583-589. (Review article)
  120. Reece RM, Sege R. Childhood head injuries: accidental or inflicted? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(1):11-15. (Retrospective cohort; 287 patients)
  121. Bechtel K, Stoessel K, Leventhal JM, et al. Characteristics that distinguish accidental from abusive injury in hospitalized young children with head trauma. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):165-168. (Prospective cohort; 87 patients)
  122. Piteau SJ, Ward MG, Barrowman NJ, et al. Clinical and radiographic characteristics associated with abusive and nonabusive head trauma: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2012;130(2):315-323. (Systematic review; 24 studies)
  123. Pitetti RD, Maffei F, Chang K, et al. Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages and child abuse in children who present with an apparent life-threatening event. Pediatrics. 2002;110(3):557-562. (Prospective cohort; 128 patients)
  124. Guenther E, Powers A, Srivastava R, et al. Abusive head trauma in children presenting with an apparent life-threatening event. J Pediatr. 2010;157(5):821-825. (Retrospective cohort; 627 patients)
  125. Hymel KP, Armijo-Garcia V, Foster R, et al. Validation of a clinical prediction rule for pediatric abusive head trauma. Pediatrics. 2014;134(6):e1537-e1544. (Prospective observational cross-sectional study; 291 patients)
  126. Cowley LE, Morris CB, Maguire SA, et al. Validation of a prediction tool for abusive head trauma. Pediatrics. 2015;136(2):290-298. (Prospective cohort; 198 patients)
  127. Berger RP, Fromkin J, Herman B, et al. Validation of the Pittsburgh Infant Brain Injury Score for abusive head trauma. Pediatrics. 2016;138(1). (Prospective case-control validation study; 1040 patients)
  128. Kadom N, Khademian Z, Vezina G, et al. Usefulness of MRI detection of cervical spine and brain injuries in the evaluation of abusive head trauma. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44(7):839-848. (Retrospective cohort; 74 patients)
  129. Matschke J, Buttner A, Bergmann M, et al. Encephalopathy and death in infants with abusive head trauma is due to hypoxic-ischemic injury following local brain trauma to vital brainstem centers. Int J Legal Med. 2015;129(1):105-114. (Prospective cohort; 50 cases)
  130. Choudhary AK, Ishak R, Zacharia TT, et al. Imaging of spinal injury in abusive head trauma: a retrospective study. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44(9):1130-1140. (Retrospective cohort; 183 patients)
  131. Binenbaum G, Mirza-George N, Christian CW, et al. Odds of abuse associated with retinal hemorrhages in children suspected of child abuse. J AAPOS. 2009;13(3):268-272. (Retrospective cross-sectional study; 110 patients)
  132. Burkhart ZN, Thurber CJ, Chuang AZ, et al. Risk factors associated with retinal hemorrhage in suspected abusive head trauma. J AAPOS. 2015;19(2):119-123. (Retrospective cohort; 168 patients)
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Gunjan Tiyyagura, MD; Meghan Beucher, MD; Kirsten Bechtel, MD

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July 2, 2017

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August 1, 2020

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