A literature search was performed using the PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE® databases as well as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from their start until 2016. The following keywords were searched: child abuse, child maltreatment, nonaccidental trauma, and inflicted injury in various combinations with the key words epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation, management, prognosis, emergency department, abusive head trauma, burns, bruising, intraoral injury, sentinel injury, abdominal injury, thoracic injury, eye injury, fractures, skeletal injuries, siblings, and domestic violence. References in the bibliographies of relevant review articles were also examined. Together, over 200 articles and websites were reviewed.
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