<< Identifying Emergency Department Patients With Chest Pain Who Are at Low Risk for Acute Coronary Syndromes


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study is included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the author, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  3. Welsford M, Nikolaou NI, Beygui F, et al. Part 5: acute coronary syndromes. 2015 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation. 2015;132(16 Suppl 1):S146-S176. (Consensus guideline)
  4. * Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, et al. Third universal definition of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2012;126(16):2020-2035. (Consensus statement)
  5. * O’Connor RE, Al Ali AS, Brady WJ, et al. Part 9: acute coronary syndromes. 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2015;132(18 Suppl 2):S483-S500. (Consensus guideline)
  6. * Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(24):e139-e228. (Consensus guideline)
  7. Chew DP, Aroney CN, Aylward PE, et al. 2011 addendum to the National Heart Foundation of Australia/Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) 2006. Heart Lung Circ. 2011;20(8):487-502. (Consensus guideline)
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David Markel, MD

Publication Date

July 1, 2017

CME Expiration Date

July 31, 2020

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CME Information

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