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<< Vascular Access in Pediatric Patients in the Emergency Department: Types of Access, Indications, and Complications

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References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study is included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  8. Kleinman ME, Chameides L, Schexnayder SM, et al. Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):e1361-e1399. (Guidelines)
  9. * Yen K, Riegert A, Gorelick MH. Derivation of the DIVA score: a clinical prediction rule for the identification of children with difficult intravenous access. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008;24(3):143-147. (Prospective cohort study; 615 patients age 0-21 years)
  10. Larsen P, Eldridge D, Brinkley J, et al. Pediatric peripheral intravenous access: does nursing experience and competence really make a difference? J Infus Nurs. 2010;33(4):226-235. (Prospective observational study; 1135 venipunctures in 592 pediatric patients)
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  44. Miller LJ, Philbeck TE, Montez D, et al. A new study of intraosseous blood for laboratory analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010;134(9):1253-1260. (Cross-sectional study; 10 samples of IO and peripheral blood)
  45. Evans RJ, Jewkes F, Owen G, et al. Intraosseous infusion--a technique available for intravascular administration of drugs and fluids in the child with burns. Burns. 1995;21(7):552-553. (Case reports)
  46. Hartholt KA, van Lieshout EM, Thies WC, et al. Intraosseous devices: a randomized controlled trial comparing three intraosseous devices. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2010;14(1):6-13. (Single-blind randomized trial; 65 adult and 22 pediatric patients)
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  48. Spriggs NM, White LJ, Martin SW, et al. Comparison of two intraosseous infusion techniques in an EMT training program. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(10):1168. (Prospective cross-over study; 28 EMT students and 10 paramedics)
  49. Cheung E, Baerlocher MO, Asch M, et al. Venous access: a practical review for 2009. Can Fam Physician. 2009;55(5):494-496. (Review article)
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  51. Miller AH, Roth BA, Mills TJ, et al. Ultrasound guidance versus the landmark technique for the placement of central venous catheters in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(8):800-805. (Prospective cohort study; 122 patients with CVC placement)
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  56. Froehlich CD, Rigby MR, Rosenberg ES, et al. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement decreases complications and decreases placement attempts compared with the landmark technique in patients in a pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(3):1090-1096. (Prospective observational cohort study; 93 patients)
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  73. Koh JL, Harrison D, Myers R, et al. A randomized, double-blind comparison study of EMLA and ELA-Max for topical anesthesia in children undergoing intravenous insertion. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14(12):977-982. (Double-blind randomized trial; 60 patients aged 8-17 years)
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  82. Waterhouse MR, Liu DR, Wang VJ. Cryotherapeutic topical analgesics for pediatric intravenous catheter placement: ice versus vapocoolant spray. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013;29(1):8-12. (Cross-sectional cross-over study)
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Authors

Rachel Whitney, MD; Melissa Langhan, MD, MHS

Publication Date

June 2, 2017

CME Expiration Date

July 1, 2020

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