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<< Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: New Strategies for Improving Outcomes (Pharmacology CME)

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, random-ized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study is included in bold type following the ref-erence, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Wakabayashi K, Sato N, Kajimoto K, et al. Incidence and predictors of in-hospital non-cardiac death in patients with acute heart failure. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2015 Jul 2. (Retrospective observational cohort study; 4842 patients)
  2. * Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;133(4):e38-e360. (Cross-sectional analysis)
  3. Curtis LH, Whellan DJ, Hammill BG, et al. Incidence and prevalence of heart failure in elderly persons, 1994-2003. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(4):418-424. (Retrospective cohort study; 622,789 patients)

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