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<< Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: New Strategies for Improving Outcomes (Pharmacology CME)

Etiology And Pathophysiology

Heart failure occurs when the heart is either unable to pump blood during systole (HFrEF) or to fill with blood during diastole (HFpEF). Heart failure typically begins with injury to the myocardium. The injury may be secondary to a number of causes that develop slowly over time (eg, uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes) or more suddenly (eg, coronary ischemia).

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