A literature search was performed via PubMed using the terms acute heart failure and decompensated heart failure. The search returned 1710 articles; 350 articles from 2014 to present were screened for relevance, and a total of 190 were reviewed based on clinical applicability in the ED. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched for reviews using the terms decompensated heart failure and acute heart failure, which identified 10 reviews; 108 were identified with the more general search terms of heart failure. The majority of these reviews focused on chronic heart failure management and were excluded. Guidelines released jointly by the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation were also reviewed.
To continue reading, please log in or purchase access.