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<< Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Patients: Diagnosis and Management in the Emergency Department (Pharmacology CME)

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References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study is included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  3. Askenazi DJ, Feig DI, Graham NM, et al. 3-5 year longitudinal follow-up of pediatric patients after acute renal failure. Kidney Int. 2006;69(1):184-189. (Retrospective; 174 children)
  4. Greenberg JH, Coca S, Parikh CR. Long-term risk of chronic kidney disease and mortality in children after acute kidney injury: a systematic review. BMC Nephrol. 2014;15:184. (Retrospective; 346 patients)
  5. Kaddourah A, Basu RK, Bagshaw SM, et al. Epidemiology of acute kidney injury in critically ill children and young adults. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(1):11-20. (Prospective observational study; 4984 patients)
  6. de Rovetto CR, Mora JA, Alexandre Cardona S, et al. Acute kidney injury applying pRIFLE scale in children of Hospital Universitario del Valle in Cali, Colombia: clinical features, management and evolution. Colomb Med (Cali). 2012;43(3):200-205. (Case series; 27 children)
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  10. *Goldstein SL. Acute kidney injury in children and its potential consequences in adulthood. Blood Purif. 2012;33(1-3):131-137. (Review)
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  38. * Yue Z, Jiang P, Sun H, et al. Association between an excess risk of acute kidney injury and concomitant use of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in children, retrospective analysis of a spontaneous reporting system. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2014;70(4):479-482. (Retrospective analysis; 47,803 children)
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  40. Kanbay M, Covic A, Coca SG, et al. Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized trials. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009;41(3):617-627. (Meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials; 2448 patients)
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  45. Mannix R, Tan ML, Wright R, et al. Acute pediatric rhabdomyolysis: causes and rates of renal failure. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5):2119-2125. (Retrospective; 210 children)
  46. Grunau BE, Pourvali R, Wiens MO, et al. Characteristics and thirty-day outcomes of emergency department patients with elevated creatine kinase. Acad Emerg Med. 2014;21(6):631-636. (Retrospective; 400 patients)
  47. Delaney KA, Givens ML, Vohra RB. Use of RIFLE criteria to predict the severity and prognosis of acute kidney injury in emergency department patients with rhabdomyolysis. J Emerg Med. 2012;42(5):521-528. (Retrospective; 135 adults)
  48. Talving P, Karamanos E, Skiada D, et al. Relationship of creatine kinase elevation and acute kidney injury in pediatric trauma patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;74(3):912-916. (Retrospective; 521 children)
  49. Turner ME, Weinstein J, Kher K. Acute renal failure secondary to pyelonephritis. Pediatrics. 1996;97(5):742-743. (Case report)
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  52. Coward RJ, Peters CJ, Duffy PG, et al. Epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88(11):962-965. (Retrospective; 121 children)
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  54. Howard SC, Kaplan SD, Razzouk BI, et al. Urolithiasis in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 2003;17(3):541-546. (Retrospective; 2095 children)
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  63. Carmody JB, Charlton JR. Short-term gestation, long-term risk: prematurity and chronic kidney disease. Pediatrics. 2013;131(6):1168-1179. (Review)
  64. Singhal N, Saha A. Bedside biomarkers in pediatric cardio renal injuries in emergency. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2014;4(3):238-246. (Review)
  65. Lagos-Arevalo P, Palijan A, Vertullo L, et al. Cystatin C in acute kidney injury diagnosis: early biomarker or alternative to serum creatinine? Pediatr Nephrol. 2015;30(4):665-676. (Prospective cohort study; 160 children)
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  68. Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M. Elevated serum creatinine and a normal urinalysis: a short differential diagnosis in the etiology of renal failure. Ren Fail. 2006;28(5):389-394. (Retrospective study; 515 patients)
  69. Schinstock CA, Semret MH, Wagner SJ, et al. Urinalysis is more specific and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is more sensitive for early detection of acute kidney injury. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013;28(5):1175-1185. (Prospective observational; 488 patients)
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  71. * Faubel S, Patel NU, Lockhart ME, et al. Renal relevant radiology: use of ultrasonography in patients with AKI. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(2):382-394. (Review)
  72. Chen L, Hsiao A, Langhan M, et al. Use of bedside ultrasound to assess degree of dehydration in children with gastroenteritis. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17(10):1042-1047. (Prospective observational study; 112 children)
  73. Lin SM, Huang CD, Lin HC, et al. A modified goal-directed protocol improves clinical outcomes in intensive care unit patients with septic shock: a randomized controlled trial. Shock. 2006;26(6):551-557. (Prospective radomized controlled study; 224 patients)
  74. Spandorfer PR, Alessandrini EA, Joffe MD, et al. Oral versus intravenous rehydration of moderately dehydrated children: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):295-301. (Prospective randomized controlled study; 73 children)
  75. Selewski DT, Symons JM. Acute kidney injury. Pediatr Rev. 2014;35(1):30-41. (Retrospective; 96 infants)
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  79. Homsi E, Barreiro MF, Orlando JM, et al. Prophylaxis of acute renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis. Ren Fail. 1997;19(2):283-288. (Retrospective; 24 patients)
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  87. Westland R, Kurvers RA, van Wijk JA, et al. Risk factors for renal injury in children with a solitary functioning kidney. Pediatrics. 2013;131(2):e478-e485. (Prospective observational; 407 children)
  88. Mehrotra A, Rose C, Pannu N, et al. Incidence and consequences of acute kidney injury in kidney transplant recipients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;59(4):558-565. (Retrospective cohort study, 3066 patients)
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  91. Du Y, Zappitelli M, Mian A, et al. Urinary biomarkers to detect acute kidney injury in the pediatric emergency center. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26(2):267-274. (Prospective cohort study; 252 children)
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  106. Jefferies JL, Price JF, Denfield SW, et al. Safety and efficacy of nesiritide in pediatric heart failure. J Card Fail. 2007;13(7):541-548. (Retrospective; 63 children)
  107. Liu J, Xie Y, He F, et al. Recombinant brain natriuretic peptide for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing nonemergent percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary angiography: a randomized controlled trial. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:5985327. (Randomized controlled trial; 218 patients)
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Publication Information
Authors

Daniel Mohrer, MD; Melissa Langhan, MD, MHS

Publication Date

May 2, 2017

CME Expiration Date

June 1, 2020

CME Credits

4 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™, 4 ACEP Category I Credits, 4 AAFP Prescribed Credits, 4 AOA Category 2-A or 2-B Credits.
Specialty CME Credits: Included as part of the 4 credits, this CME activity is eligible for 1 Pharmacology CME credit

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