References | Noninvasive Ventilation

<< Noninvasive Ventilation For Patients In Acute Respiratory Distress: An Update


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study is included in bold type following the reference, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Weingart SD, Trueger NS, Wong N, et al. Delayed sequence intubation: a prospective observational study. Ann Emerg Med. 2015;65(4):349-355. (Multicenter prospective observational; 62 patients)
  2. Nava S, Ferrer M, Esquinas A, et al. Palliative use of non-invasive ventilation in end-of-life patients with solid tumours: a randomised feasibility trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(3):219- 227. (Randomized; 200 patients)
  3. Schnell D, Timsit JF, Darmon M, et al. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure: trends in use and outcomes. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40(4):582-591. (Multicenter review; 1232 patients)
  4. Torres JD RM. Non-invasive ventilation: update for uses in the critically ill patient. EM Critical Care. 2011;1. (Review)
  5. Carlson JN, Wang HE. Noninvasive airway management. In: Cline DM, Ma OJ, Cydulka RK, et al. Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7th ed. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. (Textbook)
  6. Bersten AD, Holt AW, Vedig AE, et al. Treatment of severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema with continuous positive airway pressure delivered by face mask. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(26):1825-1830. (Prospective; 39 patients)
  7. Masip J, Roque M, Sanchez B, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2005;294(24):3124-3130. (Meta-analysis; 15 studies, 843 patients)
  8. Ho KM, Wong K. A comparison of continuous and bi-level positive airway pressure non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2006;10(2):R49. (Meta-analysis; 7 studies, 290 patients)
  9. * Siegel TA. Mechanical ventilation and noninvasive ventilatory support. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014. (Textbook)
  10. Navalesi P, Fanfulla F, Frigerio P, et al. Physiologic evaluation of noninvasive mechanical ventilation delivered with three types of masks in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(6):1785-1790. (Randomized; 26 patients)
  11. Girault C, Briel A, Benichou J, et al. Interface strategy during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(1):124-131. (Prospective randomized controlled; 90 patients)
  12. Silva RM, Timenetsky KT, Neves RC, et al. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients. J Bras Pneumol. 2013;39(4):469-475. (Observational; 245 patients)
  13. Chacur FH, Vilella Felipe LM, Fernandes CG, et al. The total face mask is more comfortable than the oronasal mask in noninvasive ventilation but is not associated with improved outcome. Respiration. 2011;82(5):426-430. (Prospective randomized; 60 patients)
  14. Lemyze M, Mallat J, Nigeon O, et al. Rescue therapy by switching to total face mask after failure of face mask-delivered noninvasive ventilation in do-not-intubate patients in acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(2):481-488. (Prospective observational; 74 patients)
  15. Ozlem CG, Ali A, Fatma U, et al. Comparison of helmet and facial mask during noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled study. Turk J Med Sci. 2015;45(3):600-606. (Randomized; 50 patients)
  16. Yang Y, Sun L, Liu N, et al. Effects of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation with different interfaces in patients with hypoxemia after surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection. Med Sci Monit. 2015;21:2294-2304. (Randomized; 40 patients)
  17. Antonaglia V, Ferluga M, Molino R, et al. Comparison of noninvasive ventilation by sequential use of mask and helmet versus mask in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a preliminary study. Respiration. 2011;82(2):148-154. (Prospective randomized; 53 patients)
  18. Wong DT, Tam AD, Van Zundert TC. The usage of the Bous-signac continuous positive airway pressure system in acute respiratory failure. Minerva Anestesiol. 2013;79(5):564-570. (Review; 19 references)
  19. Templier F, Dolveck F, Baer M, et al. ‘Boussignac’ continuous positive airway pressure system: practical use in a prehospital medical care unit. Eur J Emerg Med. 2003;10(2):87-93. (Prospective descriptive; 57 patients)
  20. Fyntanidou B, Amaniti E, Fortounis K, et al. Prehospital use of Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure system in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema [abstract]. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:178. (Abstract)
  21. Freitas P, Limpo B, Sa N, et al. Prehospital Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure: one year experience. Resuscitation. 2010;81:S56. (Abstract)
  22. Dieperink W, Weelink EE, van der Horst IC, et al. Treatment of presumed acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in an ambulance system by nurses using Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure. Emerg Med J. 2009;26(2):141-144. (Prospective interventional; 32 patients)
  23. Moritz F, Benichou J, Vanheste M, et al. Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure device in the emergency care of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a randomized pilot study. Eur J Emerg Med. 2003;10(3):204-208. (Randomized; 30 patients)
  24. Dieperink W, Jaarsma T, van der Horst IC, et al. Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure for the management of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: prospective study with a retrospective control group. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007;7:40. (Prospective interventional; 66 patients)
  25. Moritz F, Brousse B, Gellee B, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure versus bilevel noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a randomized multicenter trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;50(6):666-675. (Randomized; 120 patients)
  26. Nouira S, Boukef R, Bouida W, et al. Non-invasive pressure support ventilation and CPAP in cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a multicenter randomized study in the emergency department. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37(2):249-256. (Randomized; 200 patients)
  27. Leman P, Greene S, Whelan K, et al. Simple lightweight disposable continuous positive airways pressure mask to effectively treat acute pulmonary oedema: randomized controlled trial. Emerg Med Australas. 2005;17(3):224-230. (Randomized controlled; 39 patients)
  28. Weingart SD, Levitan RM. Preoxygenation and prevention of desaturation during emergency airway management. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;59(3):165-175. (Review; 97 references)
  29. Mal S, McLeod S, Iansavichene A, et al. Effect of out-of-hospital noninvasive positive-pressure support ventilation in adult patients with severe respiratory distress: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;63(5):600-607. (Meta-analysis; 7 studies, 632 patients)
  30. Diaz O, Iglesia R, Ferrer M, et al. Effects of noninvasive ventilation on pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics during acute hypercapnic exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(6):1840-1845. (Prospective; 10 patients)
  31. * Ram FS, Picot J, Lightowler J, et al. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for treatment of respiratory failure due to exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD004104. (Cochrane review; 14 studies)
  32. Brochard L, Mancebo J, Wysocki M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(13):817-822. (Prospective randomized; 85 patients)
  33. Lindenauer PK, Stefan MS, Shieh MS, et al. Outcomes associated with invasive and noninvasive ventilation among patients hospitalized with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(12):1982- 1993. (Retrospective cohort; 25,628 patients)
  34. Keenan SP, Sinuff T, Cook DJ, et al. Which patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease benefit from noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation? A systematic review of the literature. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(11):861-870. (Systematic review; 15 studies)
  35. Keenan SP, Powers CE, McCormack DG. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with milder chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a randomized controlled trial. Respir Care. 2005;50(5):610-616. (Randomized controlled; 25 patients)
  36. Soroksky A, Klinowski E, Ilgyev E, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute asthmatic attack. Eur Respir Rev. 2010;19(115):39-45. (Review; 58 references)
  37. Gupta D, Nath A, Agarwal R, et al. A prospective randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute asthma. Respir Care. 2010;55(5):536-543. (Prospective randomized controlled; 53 patients)
  38. Meduri GU, Cook TR, Turner RE, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in status asthmaticus. Chest. 1996;110(3):767-774. (Prospective; 17 patients)
  39. Soroksky A, Stav D, Shpirer I. A pilot prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bilevel positive airway pressure in acute asthmatic attack. Chest. 2003;123(4):1018-1025. (Randomized; 30 patients)
  40. Patrick W, Webster K, Ludwig L, et al. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in acute respiratory distress without prior chronic respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153(3):1005-1011. (Prospective; 11 patients)
  41. Fernandez MM, Villagra A, Blanch L, et al. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in status asthmaticus. Intensive Care Med. 2001;27(3):486-492. (Retrospective observational; 58 patients)
  42. Shivaram U, Miro AM, Cash ME, et al. Cardiopulmonary responses to continuous positive airway pressure in acute asthma. J Crit Care. 1993;8(2):87-92. (Retrospective; 58 patients)
  43. 43. Lim WJ, Mohammed Akram R, Carson KV, et al. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for treatment of respiratory failure due to severe acute exacerbations of asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD004360. (Cochrane review; 6 studies, 206 patients)
  44. * Nanchal R, Kumar G, Majumdar T, et al. Utilization of mechanical ventilation for asthma exacerbations: analysis of a national database. Respir Care. 2014;59(5):644-653. (Database review)
  45. Weng CL, Zhao YT, Liu QH, et al. Meta-analysis: noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(9):590-600. (Meta-analysis)
  46. * Vital FM, Ladeira MT, Atallah AN. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (CPAP or bilevel NPPV) for cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;5:CD005351. (Cochrane review; 32 studies, 2916 patients)
  47. Mehta S, Jay GD, Woolard RH, et al. Randomized, prospective trial of bilevel versus continuous positive airway pressure in acute pulmonary edema. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(4):620-628. (Prospective randomized; 27 patients)
  48. Rusterholtz T, Kempf J, Berton C, et al. Noninvasive pressure support ventilation (NIPSV) with face mask in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). Intensive Care Med. 1999;25(1):21-28. (Prospective; 26 patients)
  49. Sharon A, Shpirer I, Kaluski E, et al. High-dose intravenous isosorbide-dinitrate is safer and better than Bi-PAP ventilation combined with conventional treatment for severe pulmonary edema. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36(3):832-837. (Prospective randomized; 40 patients)
  50. Confalonieri M, Potena A, Carbone G, et al. Acute respiratory failure in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. A prospective randomized evaluation of noninvasive ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(5 Pt 1):1585-1591. (Prospective randomized; 56 patients)
  51. * Zhang Y, Fang C, Dong BR, et al. Oxygen therapy for pneumonia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;3:CD006607. (Cochrane review; 3 studies, 151 patients)
  52. Nicolini A, Ferraioli G, Ferrari-Bravo M, et al. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for respiratory failure due to severe community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Respir J. 2016;10(1):98-103. (Prospective; 127 patients)
  53. Raghu G, Collard HR, Egan JJ, et al. An official ATS/ERS/ JRS/ALAT statement: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(6):788-824. (Practice guideline)
  54. Vianello A, Arcaro G, Battistella L, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in the event of acute respiratory failure in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Crit Care. 2014;29(4):562-567. (Retrospective chart review; 18 patients)
  55. Gungor G, Tatar D, Salturk C, et al. Why do patients with interstitial lung diseases fail in the ICU? A 2-center cohort study. Respir Care. 2013;58(3):525-531. (Observational cohort; 120 patients)
  56. Yokoyama T, Kondoh Y, Taniguchi H, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Intern Med. 2010;49(15):1509-1514. (Retrospective chart review; 11 patients)
  57. Mollica C, Paone G, Conti V, et al. Mechanical ventilation in patients with end-stage idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Respiration. 2010;79(3):209-215. (Retrospective chart review; 34 patients)
  58. Modell JH, Graves SA, Ketover A. Clinical course of 91 consecutive near-drowning victims. Chest. 1976;70(2):231-238. (Retrospective case review; 91 patients)
  59. Pendergast DR, Lundgren CE. The underwater environment: cardiopulmonary, thermal, and energetic demands. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106(1):276-283. (Review)
  60. Orlowski JP, Szpilman D. Drowning. Rescue, resuscitation, and reanimation. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001;48(3):627-646. (Review)
  61. Epstein M. Renal effects of head-out water immersion in humans: a 15-year update. Physiol Rev. 1992;72(3):563-621. (Review)
  62. Szpilman D. Near-drowning and drowning classification: a proposal to stratify mortality based on the analysis of 1,831 cases. Chest. 1997;112(3):660-665. (Review; 2304 patients)
  63. Noonan L, Howrey R, Ginsburg CM. Freshwater submersion injuries in children: a retrospective review of seventy-five hospitalized patients. Pediatrics. 1996;98(3 Pt 1):368-371. (Retrospective chart review; 75 patients)
  64. van Berkel M, Bierens JJ, Lie RL, et al. Pulmonary oedema, pneumonia and mortality in submersion victims; a retrospective study in 125 patients. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(2):101- 107. (Retrospective; 125 patients)
  65. Layon AJ, Modell JH. Drowning: update 2009. Anesthesiology. 2009;110(6):1390-1401. (Review)
  66. Nelson SW, McCorvey SC. Submersion and drowning injuries. 2015. Available at: Accessed September 7, 2016. (Online review)
  67. Szpilman D, Bierens JJ, Handley AJ, et al. Drowning. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(22):2102-2110. (Review)
  68. Mayordomo-Colunga J, Medina A, Rey C, et al. Predictive factors of non invasive ventilation failure in critically ill children: a prospective epidemiological study. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35(3):527-536. (Prospective observational; 116 patients)
  69. Dohna-Schwake C, Stehling F, Tschiedel E, et al. Non-invasive ventilation on a pediatric intensive care unit: feasibility, efficacy, and predictors of success. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011;46(11):1114-1120. (Retrospective chart review; 74 patients)
  70. Abadesso C, Nunes P, Silvestre C, et al. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children. Pediatr Rep. 2012;4(2):e16. (Prospective observational; 151 patients)
  71. Vitaliti G, Wenzel A, Bellia F, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in pediatric emergency care: a literature review and description of our experience. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2013;7(5):545- 552. (Review)
  72. Contou D, Fragnoli C, Cordoba-Izquierdo A, et al. Non-invasive ventilation for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: intubation rate in an experienced unit. Respir Care. 2013;58(12):2045-2052. (Observational cohort; 242 patients)
  73. Pacilli AM, Valentini I, Carbonara P, et al. Determinants of noninvasive ventilation outcomes during an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the effects of comorbidities and causes of respiratory failure. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:976783. (Prospective; 176 patients)
  74. Antonaglia V, Ferluga M, Capitanio G, et al. Respiratory mechanics in COPD patients who failed non-invasive ventilation: role of intrinsic PEEP. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;184(1):35-40. (Prospective; 29 patients)
  75. Savi A, Gasparetto Maccari J, Frederico Tonietto T, et al. Influence of FIO2 on PaCO2 during noninvasive ventilation in patients with COPD. Respir Care. 2014;59(3):383-387. (Prospective; 17 patients)
  76. Galindo-Filho VC, Brandao DC, Ferreira Rde C, et al. Noninvasive ventilation coupled with nebulization during asthma crises: a randomized controlled trial. Respir Care. 2013;58(2):241-249. (Randomized controlled; 21 patients)
  77. Carvalho L, Carneiro R, Freire E, et al. Non-invasive ventilation in cardiogenic pulmonary edema in the emergency department. Rev Port Cardiol. 2008;27(2):191-198. (Retrospective observational; 17 patients)
  78. Cosentini R, Brambilla AM, Aliberti S, et al. Helmet continuous positive airway pressure vs oxygen therapy to improve oxygenation in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, controlled trial. Chest. 2010;138(1):114-120. (Multicenter randomized controlled trial; 47 patients)
  79. Confalonieri M, Gazzaniga P, Gandola L, et al. Haemodynamic response during initiation of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in COPD patients with acute ventilatory failure. Respir Med. 1998;92(2):331-337. (Prospective observational; 19 patients)
  80. Peter JV, Moran JL, Phillips-Hughes J, et al. Effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2006;367(9517):1155-1163. (Meta-analysis; 23 studies)
  81. Liesching T, Nelson DL, Cormier KL, et al. Randomized trial of bilevel versus continuous positive airway pressure for acute pulmonary edema. J Emerg Med. 2014;46(1):130-140. (Randomized; 27 patients)
  82. Agarwal R, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D. Role of noninvasive ventilation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: a proportion meta-analysis. Respir Care. 2010;55(12):1653-1660. (Systematic review; 13 studies)
  83. Zhan Q, Sun B, Liang L, et al. Early use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute lung injury: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(2):455- 460. (Multicenter randomized controlled; 40 patients)
  84. Quill CM, Quill TE. Palliative use of noninvasive ventilation: navigating murky waters. J Palliat Med. 2014;17(6):657-661. (Case report; 4 patients)
  85. Peters SG, Holets SR, Gay PC. High-flow nasal cannula therapy in do-not-intubate patients with hypoxemic respiratory distress. Respir Care. 2013;58(4):597-600. (Prospective; 50 patients)
  86. Azoulay E, Kouatchet A, Jaber S, et al. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients having declined tracheal intubation. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39(2):292-301. (Prospective observational cohort; 780 patients)
  87. Bulow HH, Thorsager B. Non-invasive ventilation in do-not-intubate patients: five-year follow-up on a two-year prospective, consecutive cohort study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53(9):1153-1157. (Retrospective observational; 38 patients)
  88. Scarpazza P, Incorvaia C, Amboni P, et al. Long-term survival in elderly patients with a do-not-intubate order treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2011;6:253-257. (Prospective observational; 54 patients)
  89. Servera E, Sancho J, Zafra MJ, et al. Alternatives to endotracheal intubation for patients with neuromuscular diseases. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;84(11):851-857. (Prospective cohort; 17 patients)
  90. Bourke SC, Tomlinson M, Williams TL, et al. Effects of non-invasive ventilation on survival and quality of life in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(2):140-147. (Randomized controlled; 92 patients)
  91. Wanek S, Mayberry JC. Blunt thoracic trauma: flail chest, pulmonary contusion, and blast injury. Crit Care Clin. 2004;20(1):71-81. (Review)
  92. Uretzky G, Cotev S. The use of continuous positive airway pressure in blast injury of the chest. Crit Care Med. 1980;8(9):486-489. (Case report)
  93. Chiumello D, Coppola S, Froio S, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in chest trauma: systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39(7):1171-1180. (Systematic review; 10 studies)
  94. McIlwaine M, Button B, Dwan K. Positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;6:CD003147. (Cochrane review; 26 studies)
  95. Moran F, Bradley JM, Piper AJ. Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;4:CD002769. (Cochrane review; 7 studies, 106 patients)
  96. Armstrong D. The use of continuous positive airway pressure or non-invasive ventilation as forms of respiratory support in children with cystic fibrosis. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2013;14 Suppl 1:19-21. (Review; 22 references)
  97. Constantin JM, Schneider E, Cayot-Constantin S, et al. Remifentanil-based sedation to treat noninvasive ventilation failure: a preliminary study. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33(1):82- 87. (Prospective; 13 patients)
  98. Rocco M, Conti G, Alessandri E, et al. Rescue treatment for noninvasive ventilation failure due to interface intolerance with remifentanil analgosedation: a pilot study. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36(12):2060-2065. (Prospective; 36 patients)
  99. Huang Z, Chen YS, Yang ZL, et al. Dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for the sedation of patients with non-invasive ventilation failure. Intern Med. 2012;51(17):2299-2305. (Randomized controlled; 62 patients)
  100. Devlin JW, Al-Qadheeb NS, Chi A, et al. Efficacy and safety of early dexmedetomidine during noninvasive ventilation for patients with acute respiratory failure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Chest. 2014;145(6):1204-1212. (Randomized controlled; 33 patients)
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  102. Remick J, Sacchetti A, Bages G, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in procedural sedation. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28(6):750 e751-e753. (Case report)
  103. Strayer RJ, Caputo ND. Noninvasive ventilation during procedural sedation in the ED: a case series. Am J Emerg Med. 2015;33(1):116-120. (Case series; 11 patients)
  104. Landoni G, Cabrini L. Noninvasive ventilation outside the ICU. In: JL V, ed. Annual Update of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2012:207- 218. (Textbook)
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Nikita Joshi, MD; Molly K. Estes, MD; Kayla Shipley, MD; Hyun-Chul Danny Lee, MD

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