References | Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study is included in bold type following the reference, where available.

  1. Sutton MY, Sternberg M, Zaidi A, et al. Trends in pelvic inflammatory disease hospital discharges and ambulatory visits, United States, 1985-2001. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32(12):778-784. (Retrospective; 770,000 patients)
  2. Rein DB, Kassler WJ, Irwin KL, et al. Direct medical cost of pelvic inflammatory disease and its sequelae: decreasing, but still substantial. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95(3):397-402. (Retrospective; 3 years of claims data)
  3. * Ness RB, Soper DE, Holley RL, et al. Effectiveness of inpatient and outpatient treatment strategies for women with pelvic inflammatory disease: results from the Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) Randomized Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(5):929-937. (Prospective; 831 patients)
  4. Landers DV, Sweet RL. Tubo-ovarian abscess: contemporary approach to management. Rev Infect Dis. 1983;5(5):876-884. (Retrospective; 232 patients)
  5. Macaluso M, Wright-Schnapp TJ, Chandra A, et al. A public health focus on infertility prevention, detection, and management. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(1):16.e1-e10. (Review)
  6. Eschenbach DA, Wølner-Hanssen P, Hawes SE, et al. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease: associations of clinical and laboratory findings with laparoscopic findings. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89(2):184-192. (Prospective; 155 patients)
  7. * Kahn JG, Walker CK, Washington AE, et al. Diagnosing pelvic inflammatory disease. A comprehensive analysis and considerations for developing a new model. JAMA. 1991;266(18):2594-2604. (Systematic review)
  8. Westrom L, Joesoef R, Reynolds G, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility. A cohort study of 1,844 women with laparoscopically verified disease and 657 control women with normal laparoscopic results. Sex Transm Dis. 1992;19(4):185-192. (Prospective study; 1800 patients)
  9. Molander P, SjÖberg J, Paavonen J, et al. Transvaginal power Doppler findings in laparoscopically proven acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001;17(3):233-238. (Prospective; 30 patients)
  10. Tukeva TA, Aronen HJ, Karjalainen PT, et al. MR imaging in pelvic inflammatory disease: comparison with laparoscopy and US. Radiology. 1999;210(1):209-216. (Prospective; 30 patients)
  11. * Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(3):1-137. (Expert guidelines/systematic review)
  12. UK national guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease 2011. London, UK: British Association for Sexual Health and HIV; June 18, 2011. (Guideline)
  13. Andreotti RF, Lee SI, Dejesus Allison SO, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® acute pelvic pain in the reproductive age group. Ultrasound Q. 2011;27(3):205-210. (Expert guideline)
  14. Rohrbeck P. Pelvic inflammatory disease among female recruit trainees, active component, U.S. armed forces, 2002- 2012. MSMR. 2013;20(9):15-18. (Retrospective; 1500 patients)
  15. Westrom L. Incidence, prevalence, and trends of acute pelvic inflammatory disease and its consequences in industrialized countries. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980;138(7 Pt 2):880-892. (Retrospective epidemological study)
  16. Ness RB, Trautmann G, Richter HE, et al. Effectiveness of treatment strategies of some women with pelvic inflammatory disease: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106(3):573-580. (Prospective; 831 patients)
  17. Haggerty CL, Totten PA, Astete SG, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium among women with nongonococcal, nonchlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:30184. (Retrospective; 50 patients)
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  19. Clarke LM, Duerr A, Yeung KH, et al. Recovery of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus from upper and lower genital tract specimens obtained from women with pelvic inflammatory disease. J Infect Dis. 1997;176(1):286-288. (Prospective; 147 patients)
  20. Cherpes TL, Wiesenfeld HC, Melan MA, et al. The associations between pelvic inflammatory disease, Trichomonas vaginalis infection, and positive herpes simplex virus type 2 serology. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33(12):747-752. (Retrospective; 736 patients)
  21. Soper DE, Brockwell NJ, Dalton HP. Microbial etiology of urban emergency department acute salpingitis: treatment with ofloxacin. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;167(3):653-660. (Prospective; 36 patients)
  22. Paavonen J, Teisala K, Heinonen PK, et al. Microbiological and histopathological findings in acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1987;94(5):454-460. (Prospective; 45 patients)
  23. Cho HW, Koo YJ, Min KJ, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease in virgin women with tubo-ovarian abscess: A single-center experience and literature review. [Epub ahead of print] 7 August 2015. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. (Retrospective; 122 patients)
  24. Goodwin K, Fleming N, Dumont T. Tubo-ovarian abscess in virginal adolescent females: a case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2013;26(4):e99-e102. (Case report)
  25. Taylor BD, Darville T, Haggerty CL. Does bacterial vaginosis cause pelvic inflammatory disease? Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40(2):117-122. (Systematic review)
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  32. Wiesenfeld HC, Sweet RL, Ness RB, et al. Comparison of acute and subclinical pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32(7):400-405. (Retrospective; 1293 patients)
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  41. Kerani RP, Stenger MR, Weinstock H, et al. Gonorrhea treatment practices in the STD Surveillance Network, 2010-2012. Sex Transm Dis. 2015;42(1):6-12. (Prospective; 44,144 isolates)
  42. Gullberg E, Cao S, Berg OG, et al. Selection of resistant bacteria at very low antibiotic concentrations. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7(7):e1002158. (Review)
  43. Kimani J, Maclean IW, Bwayo JJ, et al. Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis pelvic inflammatory disease among sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. J Infect Dis. 1996;173(6):1437- 1444. (Prospective; 302 patients)
  44. Elizur SE, Lebovitz O, Weintraub AY, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease in women with endometriosis is more severe than in those without. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;54(2):162-165. (Retrospective; 174 patients)
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  46. Washington AE, Cates W Jr, Wasserheit JN. Preventing pelvic inflammatory disease. JAMA. 1991;266(18):2574-2580. (Meta-analysis)
  47. Scholes D, Daling JR, Stergachis A, et al. Vaginal douching as a risk factor for acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;81(4):601-606. (Retrospective; 131 patients)
  48. Gareen IF, Greenland S, Morgenstern H. Intrauterine devices and pelvic inflammatory disease: meta-analyses of published studies, 1974-1990. Epidemiology. 2000;11(5):589-597. (Meta-analysis from 1974-1990)
  49. Walsh T, Grimes D, Frezieres R, et al. Randomised controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics before insertion of intrauterine devices. IUD Study Group. Lancet. 1998;351(9108):1005- 1008. (Prospective; 1984 patients)
  50. Birgisson NE, Zhao Q, Secura GM, et al. Positive testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis and the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease in IUD users. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2015;24(5):354-359. (Prospective; 9000 patients)
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  53. Li M, McDermott R. Smoking, poor nutrition, and sexually transmitted infections associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in remote North Queensland indigenous communities, 1998-2005. BMC Womens Health. 2015;15:31. (Retrospective; 1445 patients)
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  56. Umbricht-Schneiter A, Santora P, Moore RD. Alcohol abuse: comparison of two methods for assessing its prevalence and associated morbidity in hospitalized patients. Am J Med. 1991;91(2):110-118. (Prospective; 1964 patients)
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  60. Wasserheit JN, Bell TA, Kiviat NB, et al. Microbial causes of proven pelvic inflammatory disease and efficacy of clindamycin and tobramycin. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104(2):187-193. (Prospective; 36 patients)
  61. Simms I, Warburton F, Westrom L. Diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease: time for a rethink. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79(6):491-494. (Retrospective; 623 patients)
  62. Slap GB, Forke CM, Cnaan A, et al. Recognition of tubo-ovarian abscess in adolescents with pelvic inflammatory disease. J Adolesc Health. 1996;18(6):397-403. (Retrospective; 208 patients)
  63. Wagner A, Russell C, Ponterio JM, et al. Ruptured tuboovarian abscess and septic shock with Clostridium perfringens in a postmenopausal woman: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2009;54(10):652-654. (Case report)
  64. Westfall MD, Lumpkin J. A 33-year-old white female with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and hypotension. J Emerg Med. 1993;11(3):271-273. (Case report)
  65. Peipert JF, Ness RB, Blume J, et al. Clinical predictors of endometritis in women with symptoms and signs of pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184(5):856- 863. (Retrospective; 651 patients)
  66. Litt IF, Cohen MI. Perihepatitis associated with salpingitis in adolescents. JAMA. 1978;240(12):1253-1254. (Retrospective; 137 patients)
  67. Fitz-Hugh T. Acute gonococcic peritonitis of the right upper quadrent in women. JAMA. 1934;102(25):2094-2096. (Case series; 3 patients)
  68. Adhikari S, Blaivas M, Lyon M. Role of bedside transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of tubo-ovarian abscess in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2008;34(4):429-433. (Retrospective; 20 patients)
  69. Brunham RC, Paavonen J, Stevens CE, et al. Mucopurulent cervicitis--the ignored counterpart in women of urethritis in men. N Engl J Med. 1984;311(1):1-6. (Prospective; 100 patients)
  70. Shrier LA, Dean D, Klein E, et al. Limitations of screening tests for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic adolescent and young adult women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(3):654-662. (Prospective; 139 women)
  71. Shafer MA, Moncada J, Boyer CB, et al. Comparing first-void urine specimens, self-collected vaginal swabs, and endocervical specimens to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by a nucleic acid amplification test. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(9):4395-4399. (Prospective; 2157 patients)
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  74. Van Der Pol B, Taylor SN, Lebar W, et al. Clinical evaluation of the BD ProbeTec Neisseria gonorrhoeae Qx amplified DNA assay on the BD Viper system with XTR technology. Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39(2):147-153. (Prospective; 1768 patients)
  75. Schoeman SA, Stewart CM, Booth RA, et al. Assessment of best single sample for finding chlamydia in women with and without symptoms: a diagnostic test study. BMJ. 2012;345:e8013. (Prospective; 3973 patients)
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  78. Risser JM, Risser WL. Purulent vaginal and cervical discharge in the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20(2):73-76. (Systematic review)
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  81. Rabe LK, Hillier SL. Effect of chlorhexidine on genital microflora, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. Sex Transm Dis. 2000;27(2):74-78. (In vitro study)
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  87. Lee MH, Moon MH, Sung CK, et al. CT findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Abdom Imaging. 2014;39(6):1350- 1355. (Prospective; 231 patients)
  88. You JS, Kim MJ, Chung HS, et al. Clinical features of Fitz- Hugh-Curtis syndrome in the emergency department. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53(4):753-758. (Retrospective; 82 patients)
  89. Romosan G, Valentin L. The sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultrasound with regard to acute pelvic inflammatory disease: a review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014;289(4):705-714. (Systematic review)
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  112. Lee V, Tobin JM, Foley E. Relationship of cervical ectopy to chlamydia infection in young women. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2006;32(2):104-106. (Prospective; 231 patients)
  113. Gray-Swain MR, Peipert JF. Pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;18(5):503-510. (Review)
  114. Mugo NR, Kiehlbauch JA, Nguti R, et al. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection on treatment outcome of acute salpingitis. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107(4):807-812. (Prospective; 148 patients)
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  119. Goyal M, Hersh A, Luan X, et al. National trends in pelvic inflammatory disease among adolescents in the emergency department. J Adolesc Health. 2013;53(2):249-252. (Retrospective NAHMCS database study)
  120. Lis R, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Manhart LE. Mycoplasma genitalium infection and female reproductive tract disease: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(3):418-426. (Meta-analysis)
  121. Manhart LE, Holmes KK, Hughes JP, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium among young adults in the United States: an emerging sexually transmitted infection. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(6):1118-1125. (Prospective; 14,322 patients)
  122. Walker J, Fairley CK, Bradshaw CS, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium incidence, organism load, and treatment failure in a cohort of young Australian women. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(8):1094-1100. (Prospective; 119 patients)
  123. Vandepitte J, Weiss HA, Kyakuwa N, et al. Natural history of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in a cohort of female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40(5):422- 427. (Prospective; 119 patients)
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Publication Information

Charles Walter Bugg, MD, PhD;Taku Taira, MD

Publication Date

December 1, 2016

CME Expiration Date

January 1, 2020

CME Credits

4 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™, 4 ACEP Category I Credits, 4 AAFP Prescribed Credits, 4 AOA Category 2-A or 2-B Credits.
Specialty CME Credits: Included as part of the 4 credits, this CME activity is eligible for 2 Pharmacology CME credits

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CME Information

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