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<< Vaccine-Preventable Diseases In Pediatric Patients: A Review Of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, And Varicella

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study is included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles and rubella move fast. Measles & Rubella Initiative: a global partnership to stop measles & rubella. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/measles/pdf/measles-factsheet2015.pdf. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Expert review)
  2. Seither R, Masalovich S, Knighton C, et al. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten — United States, 2013–14 school year. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(41):913-920. (Prospective database report)
  3. de Vries RD, Mesman AW, Geijtenbeek TB, et al. The pathogenesis of measles. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2(3):248-255. (Review)
  4. Naim HY. Measles virus. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015;11(1):21-26. (Review)
  5. Vareil MO, Rouibi G, Kassab S, et al. Epidemic of complicated mumps in previously vaccinated young adults in the South-West of France. Med Mal Infect. 2014;44(11-12):502-508. (Retrospective case series; 7 patients)
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rubella. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/rubella.html. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  7. Banatvala JE, Brown DW. Rubella. Lancet. 2004;363(9415):1127-1137. (Review)
  8. World Health Organization. Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines: WHO position paper, June 2014. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2014;89(25):265-287. (Position paper)
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A new product (VariZIG) for postexposure prophylaxis of varicella available under an investigational new drug application expanded access protocol. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(8):209- 210. (Fact sheet)
  10. World Heath Organization. Measles. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs286/en/. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Fact sheet)
  11. Katz SL, Hinman AR. Summary and conclusions: measles elimination meeting, 16-17 March 2000. J Infect Dis. 2004;189 Suppl 1:S43-S47. (Review)
  12. Elam-Evans LD, Yankey D, Singleton JA, et al. National, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(34):741-748. (National surveillance data)
  13. National Vaccine Information Center. Vaccine laws. Available at: http://www.nvic.org/vaccine-laws.aspx. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Fact sheet)
  14. Whitaker JA, Poland GA. Measles and mumps outbreaks in the United States: think globally, vaccinate locally. Vaccine. 2014;32(37):4703-4704. (Editorial)
  15. Macartney K. Prevention of varicella: time for two-dose vaccination. Lancet. 2014;383(9925):1276-1277. (Editorial comment)
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles - United States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(15):253-257. (Surveillance data)
  17. Gastanaduy PA, Redd SB, Fiebelkorn AP, et al. Measles - United States, January 1-May 23, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(22):496-499. (Prospective case series)
  18. Clemmons NS, Gastanaduy PA, Fiebelkorn AP, et al. Measles - United States, January 4-April 2, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(14):373-376. (Prospective case series)
  19. World Health Organization. Global measles and rubella strategic plan: 2012-2020. Available at: http://www.measlesrubellainitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Measles-Rubella-Strategic-Plan.pdf. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Strategic plan)
  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mumps cases and outbreaks. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mumps/outbreaks.html. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Prospective case series)
  21. Klein J. Mumps outbreak prompts NHL teams to take precautions. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/07/sports/hockey/mumps-outbreak-prompts-nhl-teams-to-take-precautions.html?_r=0. Accessed November 14, 2016. (News report)
  22. Hviid A, Rubin S, Muhlemann K. Mumps. Lancet. 2008;371(9616):932-944. (Review)
  23. * Papania MJ, Wallace GS, Rota PA, et al. Elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome from the Western hemisphere: the US experience. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(2):148-155. (Expert review)
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nationwide rubella epidemic--Japan, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(23):457-462. (Prospective case series)
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and elimination - global progress, 2000-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(48):983-986. (Worldwide surveillance data)
  26. * Marin M, Meissner HC, Seward JF. Varicella prevention in the United States: a review of successes and challenges. Pediatrics. 2008;122(3):e744-e751. (Review)
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evolution of varicella surveillance--selected states, 2000-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(32):609-612. (Surveillance data)
  28. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Varicella vaccination in the European Union. Stockholm, Sweden: ECDC Guidance: January 2015. Available at: http:// ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/Varicella- Guidance-2015.pdf. Accesssed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  29. Tannous LK, Barlow G, Metcalfe NH. A short clinical review of vaccination against measles. JRSM Open. 2014;5(4):2054270414523408. (Review)
  30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/meas.html. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  31. Griffin DE. Measles virus-induced suppression of immune responses. Immunol Rev. 2010;236:176-189. (Review)
  32. Gahr P, DeVries AS, Wallace G, et al. An outbreak of measles in an undervaccinated community. Pediatrics. 2014;134(1):e220-e228. (Prospective case series; 21 patients)
  33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles (rubeola). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/measles/hcp/index.html. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  34. American Academy of Pediatrics. Mumps. In: Pickering L, Baker C, Kimberlin D, et al, eds. Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009:468-472. (National recommendations)
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated recommendations for isolation of persons with mumps. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(40):1103-1105. (Review)
  36. Davis NF, McGuire BB, Mahon JA, et al. The increasing incidence of mumps orchitis: a comprehensive review. BJU Int. 2010;105(8):1060-1065. (Review)
  37. * Thompson KM, Simons EA, Badizadegan K, et al. Characterization of the risks of adverse outcomes following rubella infection in pregnancy. Risk Anal. 2016;36(7):1315-1331. (Systematic review)
  38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/varicella.pdf. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  39. Speer M. Varicella-zoster infection in the newborn. UpToDate. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/varicella-zoster-infection-in-the-newborn. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  40. Ziebold C, von Kries R, Lang R, et al. Severe complications of varicella in previously healthy children in Germany: a 1-year survey. Pediatrics. 2001;108(5):E79. (Surveillance study)
  41. Science M, MacGregor D, Richardson SE, et al. Central nervous system complications of varicella-zoster virus. J Pediatr. 2014;165(4):779-785. (Prospective case series; 84 patients)
  42. Baszis K, Toib D, Cooper M, et al. Recurrent parotitis as a presentation of primary pediatric SjÖgren syndrome. Pediatrics. 2012;129(1):e179-e182. (Cases series; 4 patients)
  43. * Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Control and prevention of rubella: evaluation and management of suspected outbreaks, rubella in pregnant women, and surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50(Rr-12):1-23. (National recommendations)
  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interpreting laboratory tests. Chickenpox (varicella). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/hcp/lab-tests.html. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  45. Oranje AP, Folkers E. The Tzanck smear: old, but still of inestimable value. Pediatr Dermatol. 1988;5(2):127-129. (Review)
  46. West CE. Vitamin A and measles. Nutr Rev. 2000;58:S46-S54. (Review)
  47. * Imdad A, Herzer K, Mayo-Wilson E, et al. Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from 6 months to 5 years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(12):CD008524. (Systematic review)
  48. World Health Organization. Vitamin A supplements: a guide to the treatment and prevention of vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia. Second edition. Geneva: WHO, 1997.(Guidelines)
  49. Young MK, Nimmo GR, Cripps AW, et al. Post-exposure passive immunisation for preventing measles. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014(4):CD010056. (Systematic review)
  50. Yapanoglu T, Kocaturk H, Aksoy Y, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of interferon-alpha-2B in patients with mumps orchitis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2010;42(4):867-871. (Prospective interventional study; 37 patients)
  51. Fiebelkorn AP, Lawler J, Curns AT, et al. Mumps postexposure prophylaxis with a third dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, Orange County, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(9):1411-1417. (Prospective case control; 239 patients)
  52. * Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated recommendations for use of VariZIG--United States, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(28):574-576. (Expert review)
  53. Bapat P, Koren G. The role of VariZIG in pregnancy. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12(11):1243-1248. (Review)
  54. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years, United States, 2015. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/child/0-18yrs-child-combined-schedule.pdf. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mumps. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/mumps.html. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Review)
  56. Maglione MA, Das L, Raaen L, et al. Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization of US children: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2014;134(2):1-13. (Systematic review)
  57. O’Leary ST, Glanz JM, McClure DL, et al. The risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura after vaccination in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):248-255. (Retrospective case series; 197 patients)
  58. Marin M, Broder KR, Temte JL, et al. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(Rr-3):1-12. (Expert review)
  59. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Thimerosal in vaccines. Vaccine safety 2015. Available at; http://www. cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/thimerosal/. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Expert review)
  60. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Varicella virus vaccine. In: Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, et al, eds. Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011:239-292. (IOM review)
  61. * Black S, Shinefield H, Ray P, et al. Postmarketing evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of varicella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999;18(12):1041-1046. (Retrospective case control; 89,753 patients)
  62. Liese JG, Grote V, Rosenfeld E, et al. The burden of varicella complications before the introduction of routine varicella vaccination in Germany. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27(2):119- 124. (Prospective nationwide surveillance; 918 patients)
  63. Cohen A, Moschopoulos P, Stiehm RE, et al. Congenital varicella syndrome: the evidence for secondary prevention with varicella-zoster immune globulin. CMAJ. 2011;183(2):204- 208. (Systematic review)
  64. American Academy of Pediatrics. Measles. In: Pickering L, Baker C, Kimberlin D, et al, eds. Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009:444-455. (National recommendations)
  65. American Academy of Pediatrics. Rubella. In: Pickering L, Baker C, Kimberlin D, et al, eds. Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009:579-584. (Guidelines)
  66. Uno Y, Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, et al. The combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and the total number of vaccines are not associated with development of autism spectrum disorder: the first case-control study in Asia. Vaccine. 2012;30(28):4292-4298. (Prospective case-control study; 189 patients)
  67. * Demicheli V, Rivetti A, Debalini MG, et al. Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012(2):CD004407. (Systematic review)
  68. DeStefano F, Price CS, Weintraub ES. Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism. J Pediatr. 2013;163(2):561-567. (Retrospective case-control study; 256 children, 752 controls)
  69. Jain A, Marshall J, Buikema A, et al. Autism occurrence by MMR vaccine status among US children with older siblings with and without autism. JAMA. 2015;313(15):1534-1540. (Retrospective cohort study; 95,727 children)
  70. * Marin M, Guris D, Chaves SS, et al. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2007;56(Rr-4):1-40. (National recommendations)
  71. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Managing people at risk for severe varicella. Chickenpox (varicella). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/hcp/persons-risk.html. Accessed November 14, 2016. (Expert review)
  72. Kabra SK, Lodha R. Antibiotics for preventing complications in children with measles. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013(8):CD001477. (Systematic review)

 

Publication Information
Authors

Deborah A. Levine, MD

Publication Date

December 2, 2016

CME Expiration Date

January 2, 2020

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CME Information

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