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References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study is included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  11. * Evidence-based management of sickle cell disease: expert panel report 2014. National Institutes of Health: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; 2014:31-53. (Expert panel report)
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  27. Frei-Jones MJ, Baxter AL, Rogers ZR, et al. Vaso-occlusive episodes in older children with sickle cell disease: emergency department management and pain assessment. J Pediatr. 2008;152(2):281-285. (Retrospective study; 105 patients, 279 VOC episodes)
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  45. Owusu-Ofori S, Hirst C. Splenectomy versus conservative management for acute sequestration crises in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;5:CD003425. (Systematic review)
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  50. Mantadakis E, Cavender JD, Rogers ZR, et al. Prevalence of priapism in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1999;21(6):518-522. (Descriptive survey study; 98 patients)
  51. Donaldson JF, Rees RW, Steinbrecher HA. Priapism in children: a comprehensive review and clinical guideline. J Pediatr Urol. 2014;10(1):11-24. (Review)
  52. Anele UA, Le BV, Resar LM, et al. How I treat priapism. Blood. 2015;125(23):3551-3558. (Review)
  53. Bernard AW, Venkat A, Lyons MS. Best evidence topic report. Full blood count and reticulocyte count in painful sickle crisis. Emerg Med J. 2006;23(4):302-303. (Review)
  54. Mohammed FA, Mahdi N, Sater MA, et al. The relation of C-reactive protein to vasoocclusive crisis in children with sickle cell disease. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2010;45(4):293-296. (Prospective study; 144 patients)
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  66. Leong MA, Dampier C, Varlotta L, et al. Airway hyperreactivity in children with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr. 1997;131(2):278-283. (Prospective study; 40 patients)
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  72. Melzer-Lange MD, Walsh-Kelly CM, Lea G, et al. Patient-controlled analgesia for sickle cell pain crisis in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20(1):2-4. (Prospective study; 69 patients)
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