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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study is included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Quinn CT. Sickle cell disease in childhood: from newborn screening through transition to adult medical care. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60(6):1363-1381. (Review)
  2. Kanter J, Kruse-Jarres R. Management of sickle cell disease from childhood through adulthood. Blood Rev. 2013;27(6):279-287. (Review)
  3. Neonato MG, Guilloud-Bataille M, Beauvais P, et al. Acute clinical events in 299 homozygous sickle cell patients living in France. French Study Group on Sickle Cell Disease. Eur J Haematol. 2000;65(3):155-164. (Prospective and retrospective study; 299 patients)
  4. * Castro O, Brambilla DJ, Thorington B, et al. The acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: incidence and risk factors. The Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease. Blood. 1994;84(2):643-649. (Prospective study; 3751 patients)
  5. Adeyoju AB, Olujohungbe AB, Morris J, et al. Priapism in sickle-cell disease; incidence, risk factors and complications - an international multicentre study. BJU Int. 2002;90(9):898- 902. (Descriptive survey study; 130 patients)
  6. Brousse V, Elie C, Benkerrou M, et al. Acute splenic sequestration crisis in sickle cell disease: cohort study of 190 paediatric patients. Br J Haematol. 2012;156(5):643-648. (Retrospective cohort study; 190 patients)
  7. McCavit TL. Sickle cell disease. Pediatr Rev. 2012;33(5):195- 204. (Review)
  8. Musallam KM, Khoury RA, Abboud MR. Cerebral infarction in children with sickle cell disease: a concise overview. Hemoglobin. 2011;35(5-6):618-624. (Review)
  9. Hirst C, Owusu-Ofori S. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;11:CD003427. (Systematic review)
  10. Health supervision for children with sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 2002;109(3):526-535. (Consensus statement)
  11. * Evidence-based management of sickle cell disease: expert panel report 2014. National Institutes of Health: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; 2014:31-53. (Expert panel report)
  12. Yawn BP, Buchanan GR, Afenyi-Annan AN, et al. Management of sickle cell disease: summary of the 2014 evidence-based report by expert panel members. JAMA. 2014;312(10):1033-1048. (Expert panel report)
  13. Kavanagh PL, Sprinz PG, Vinci SR, et al. Management of children with sickle cell disease: a comprehensive review of the literature. Pediatrics. 2011;128(6):e1552-e1574. (Literature review)
  14. Glassberg J. Evidence-based management of sickle cell disease in the emergency department. Emerg Med Pract. 2011;13(8):1-20. (Review)
  15. Prabhakar H, Haywood C Jr, Molokie R. Sickle cell disease in the United States: looking back and forward at 100 years of progress in management and survival. Am J Hematol. 2010;85(5):346-353. (Review)
  16. Benson JM, Therrell BL Jr. History and current status of newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies. Semin Perinatol. 2010;34(2):134-144. (Review)
  17. Glassberg JA, Strunk R, DeBaun MR. Wheezing in children with sickle cell disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014;26(1):9-18. (Review)
  18. Chakravorty S, Williams TN. Sickle cell disease: a neglected chronic disease of increasing global health importance. Arch Dis Child. 2015;100(1):48-53. (Review)
  19. Meier ER, Miller JL. Sickle cell disease in children. Drugs. 2012;72(7):895-906. (Review)
  20. Redding-Lallinger R, Knoll C. Sickle cell disease--pathophysiology and treatment. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2006;36(10):346-376. (Review)
  21. Kassim AA, Galadanci NA, Pruthi S, et al. How I treat and manage strokes in sickle cell disease. Blood. 2015;125(22):3401-3410. (Review)
  22. Ejindu VC, Hine AL, Mashayekhi M, et al. Musculoskeletal manifestations of sickle cell disease. Radiographics. 2007;27(4):1005-1021. (Review)
  23. Naik RP, Steriff MB, Haywood C Jr, et al. Venous thromboembolism incidence in the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease. J Thromb Haemost. 2014;12(12): 2010-2016. (Observational cohort)
  24. Battersby AJ, Knox-Macaulay HH, Carrol ED. Susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections in children with sickle cell disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;55(3):401-406. (Review)
  25. Shilo NR, Lands LC. Asthma and chronic sickle cell lung disease: a dynamic relationship. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2011;12(1):78-82. (Review)
  26. Gilboy N, Tanabe P, Travers D, et al. Emergency Severity Index (ESI): A Triage Tool for Emergency Department Care, Version 4. Implementation Handbook 2012 Edition. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011. (Handbook)
  27. Frei-Jones MJ, Baxter AL, Rogers ZR, et al. Vaso-occlusive episodes in older children with sickle cell disease: emergency department management and pain assessment. J Pediatr. 2008;152(2):281-285. (Retrospective study; 105 patients, 279 VOC episodes)
  28. Mousa SA, Al Momen A, Al Sayegh F, et al. Management of painful vaso-occlusive crisis of sickle-cell anemia: consensus opinion. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2010;16(4):365-376. (Review)
  29. Almeida A, Roberts I. Bone involvement in sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2005;129(4):482-490. (Review)
  30. Serjeant GR, Ceulaer CD, Lethbridge R, et al. The painful crisis of homozygous sickle cell disease: clinical features. Br J Haematol. 1994;87(3):586-591. (Prospective study; 118 patients, 183 VOC episodes)
  31. Mathias MD, McCavit TL. Timing of opioid administration as a quality indicator for pain crises in sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 2015;135(3):475-482. (Single-center retrospective study; 177 patients, 414 VOC episodes)
  32. Bartolucci P, El Murr T, Roudot-Thoraval F, et al. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of ketoprofen for sickle-cell disease vaso-occlusive crises in adults. Blood. 2009;114(18):3742- 3747. (Randomized controlled trial; 66 VOC episodes)
  33. Ernst AA, Weiss SJ, Johnson WD, et al. Blood pressure in acute vaso-occlusive crises of sickle cell disease. South Med J. 2000;93(6):590-592. (Retrospective study; 231 patients)
  34. Gladwin MT, Kato GJ, Weiner D, et al. Nitric oxide for inhalation in the acute treatment of sickle cell pain crisis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011;305(9):893-902. (Prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial; 150 patients)
  35. * Vichinsky EP, Styles LA, Colangelo LH, et al. Acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: clinical presentation and course. Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease. Blood. 1997;89(5):1787-1792. (Multicenter prospective cohort study; 939 patients, 1722 ACS episodes)
  36. Abbas HA, Kahale M, Hosn MA, et al. A review of acute chest syndrome in pediatric sickle cell disease. Pediatr Ann. 2013;42(3):115-120. (Review)
  37. Lovett PB, Sule HP, Lopez BL. Sickle cell disease in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2014;32(3):629- 647. (Review)
  38. Comber JT, Lopez BL. Evaluation of pulse oximetry in sickle cell anemia patients presenting to the emergency department in acute vasoocclusive crisis. Am J Emerg Med. 1996;14(1):16- 18. (Prospective study; 13 patients)
  39. Blaisdell CJ, Goodman S, Clark K, et al. Pulse oximetry is a poor predictor of hypoxemia in stable children with sickle cell disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(9):900-903. (Prospective study; 21 patients)
  40. * Gaston MH, Verter JI, Woods G, et al. Prophylaxis with oral penicillin in children with sickle cell anemia. A randomized trial. N Engl J Med. 1986;314(25):1593-1599. (Multicenter randomized controlled trial; 215 patients)
  41. Serjeant GR. Treatment of sickle cell disease in early childhood in Jamaica. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1985;7(3): 235-239. (Review)
  42. Konotey-Ahulu FID, Serjeant G, White JM et al. Treatment and prevention of sickle cell crisis. The Lancet. 1971;298(7736): 1255-1256. (Commentary)
  43. * Leikin SL, Gallagher D, Kinney TR, et al. Mortality in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease. Pediatrics. 1989;84(3):500-508. (Multicenter prospective cohort study; 2824 patients)
  44. Airede AI. Acute splenic sequestration in a five-week-old infant with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr. 1992;120(1):160. (Case report)
  45. Owusu-Ofori S, Hirst C. Splenectomy versus conservative management for acute sequestration crises in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;5:CD003425. (Systematic review)
  46. Koduri PR, Nathan S. Acute splenic sequestration crisis in adults with hemoglobin S-C disease: a report of nine cases. Ann Hematol. 2006;85(4):239-243. (Case report; 9 patients)
  47. Ohene-Frempong K, Weiner SJ, Sleeper LA, et al. Cerebrovascular accidents in sickle cell disease: rates and risk factors. Blood. 1998;91(1):288-294. (Multicenter prospective cohort study; 4082 patients)
  48. Strouse JJ, Hulbert ML, DeBaun MR, et al. Primary hemorrhagic stroke in children with sickle cell disease is associated with recent transfusion and use of corticosteroids. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5):1916-1924. (Retrospective case-control study; 44 patients)
  49. Roach ES, Golomb MR, Adams R, et al. Management of stroke in infants and children: a scientific statement from a special writing group of the American Heart Association Stroke Council and the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Stroke. 2008;39(9):2644-2691. (Consensus statement)
  50. Mantadakis E, Cavender JD, Rogers ZR, et al. Prevalence of priapism in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1999;21(6):518-522. (Descriptive survey study; 98 patients)
  51. Donaldson JF, Rees RW, Steinbrecher HA. Priapism in children: a comprehensive review and clinical guideline. J Pediatr Urol. 2014;10(1):11-24. (Review)
  52. Anele UA, Le BV, Resar LM, et al. How I treat priapism. Blood. 2015;125(23):3551-3558. (Review)
  53. Bernard AW, Venkat A, Lyons MS. Best evidence topic report. Full blood count and reticulocyte count in painful sickle crisis. Emerg Med J. 2006;23(4):302-303. (Review)
  54. Mohammed FA, Mahdi N, Sater MA, et al. The relation of C-reactive protein to vasoocclusive crisis in children with sickle cell disease. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2010;45(4):293-296. (Prospective study; 144 patients)
  55. Najim OA, Hassan MK. Lactate dehydrogenase and severity of pain in children with sickle cell disease. Acta Haematol. 2011;126(3):157-162. (Prospective descriptive study; 76 patients)
  56. Stuart J, Stone PC, Akinola NO, et al. Monitoring the acute phase response to vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease. J Clin Pathol. 1994;47(2):166-169. (Prospective longtitudinal study; 10 patients, 14 VOC episodes)
  57. Keikhaei B, Mohseni AR, Norouzirad R, et al. Altered levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in sickle cell disease patients during vaso-occlusive crises and the steady state condition. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2013;24(1):45-52. (Prospective study; 54 patients)
  58. Sarray S, Saleh LR, Lisa Saldanha F, et al. Serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNFalpha levels in pediatric sickle cell disease patients during vasoocclusive crisis and steady state condition. Cytokine. 2015;72(1):43-47. (Prospective study; 210 patients)
  59. Pereda MA, Chavez MA, Hooper-Miele CC, et al. Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2015;135(4):714-722. (Meta-analysis)
  60. Daswani DD, Shah VP, Avner JR, et al. Accuracy of point-of-care lung ultrasonography for diagnosis of acute chest syndrome in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease and fever. Acad Emerg Med. 2016;23(8):932-940. (Prospective study; 91 patients, 116 events)
  61. Reed L, Carroll J, Cumming A, et al. Serum lactate as a screening tool and predictor of outcome in pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected infections. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013;29(7):787-91 (Retrospective study)
  62. Scott HF, Donoghue AJ, Galeski DF, et al. The utility of early lactate testing in undifferentiated pediatric systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Acad Emerg Med. 2012;19(11):1276-80 (Prospective cohort study; 239 patients)
  63. Fiebach JB, Schellinger PD, Gass A, et al. Stroke magnetic resonance imaging is accurate in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage: a multicenter study on the validity of stroke imaging. Stroke. 2004;35(2):502-506. (Multicenter prospective study; 124 patients)
  64. Lansberg MG, Albers GW, Beaulieu C, et al. Comparison of diffusion-weighted MRI and CT in acute stroke. Neurology. 2000;54(8):1557-1561. (Prospective study; 19 patients)
  65. Olujohungbe A, Burnett AL. How I manage priapism due to sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2013;160(6):754-765. (Review)
  66. Leong MA, Dampier C, Varlotta L, et al. Airway hyperreactivity in children with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr. 1997;131(2):278-283. (Prospective study; 40 patients)
  67. * Baskin MN, Goh XL, Heeney MM, et al. Bacteremia risk and outpatient management of febrile patients with sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 2013;131(6):1035-1041. (Retrospective cohort study; 1118 febrile episodes)
  68. Beiter JL Jr, Simon HK, Chambliss CR, et al. Intravenous ketorolac in the emergency department management of sickle cell pain and predictors of its effectiveness. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155(4):496-500. (Prospective case series; 51 patients)
  69. Dunlop RJ, Bennett KC. Pain management for sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006(2):CD003350. (Systematic review)
  70. * Jacobson SJ, Kopecky EA, Joshi P, et al. Randomised trial of oral morphine for painful episodes of sickle-cell disease in children. Lancet. 1997;350(9088):1358-1361. (Double-blinded randomized controlled trial; 56 patients)
  71. Field JJ, Knight-Perry JE, Debaun MR. Acute pain in children and adults with sickle cell disease: management in the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Curr Opin Hematol. 2009;16(3):173-178. (Review)
  72. Melzer-Lange MD, Walsh-Kelly CM, Lea G, et al. Patient-controlled analgesia for sickle cell pain crisis in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20(1):2-4. (Prospective study; 69 patients)
  73. Okomo U, Meremikwu MM. Fluid replacement therapy for acute episodes of pain in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(2):CD005406. (Systematic review)
  74. Guy RB, Gavrillis PK, Rothenberg SP. In vitro and in vivo effect of hypotonic saline on the sickling phenomenon. Am J Med Sci. 1973;266(4):267-277 (Prospective study; 7 patients)
  75. Uman LS, Birnie KA, Noel M, et al. Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;10:CD005179. (Systematic review)
  76. Beyer JE, Simmons LE. Home treatment of pain for children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Pain Manag Nurs. 2004;5(3):126-135. (Prospective study; 42 patients)
  77. Bender MA, Douthitt Seibel G. Sickle cell disease. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., eds. GeneReviews(R): University of Washington, Seattle. All rights reserved; 1993. (Review)
  78. Ahmad FA, Macias CG, Allen JY. The use of incentive spirometry in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease to reduce the incidence of acute chest syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011;33(6):415-420. (Retrospective cohort study; 1551 patient visits)
  79. Wilson BH, Nelson J. Sickle cell disease pain management in adolescents: a literature review. Pain Manag Nurs. 2015;16(2):146-151. (Review)
  80. * Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Earles AN, et al. Causes and outcomes of the acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. National Acute Chest Syndrome Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(25):1855-1865. (Multicenter prospective cohort study; 538 patients, 671 ACS episodes)
  81. Neumayr L, Lennette E, Kelly D, et al. Mycoplasma disease and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1 Pt 1):87-95. (Multicenter prospective cohort study; 538 patients, 671 ACS episodes)
  82. Marti-Carvajal AJ, Conterno LO. Antibiotics for treating community acquired pneumonia in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD005598. (Systematic review)
  83. Marti-Carvajal AJ, Conterno LO, Knight-Madden JM. Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;3:CD006110. (Systematic review)
  84. Knight-Madden JM, Hambleton IR. Inhaled bronchodilators for acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;8:CD003733. (Systematic review)
  85. Turner JM, Kaplan JB, Cohen HW, et al. Exchange versus simple transfusion for acute chest syndrome in sickle cell anemia adults. Transfusion. 2009;49(5):863-868. (Retrospective study)
  86. Alhashimi D, Fedorowicz Z, Alhashimi F, et al. Blood transfusions for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(1):CD007843. (Systematic review)
  87. Bernini JC, Rogers ZR, Sandler ES, et al. Beneficial effect of intravenous dexamethasone in children with mild to moderately severe acute chest syndrome complicating sickle cell disease. Blood. 1998;92(9):3082-3089. (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial; 38 children, 43 episodes)
  88. Sobota A, Graham DA, Heeney MM, et al. Corticosteroids for acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease: variation in use and association with length of stay and readmission. Am J Hematol. 2010;85(1):24-28. (Retrospective study; 5247 hospitalizations)
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  94. Hulbert ML, Scothorn DJ, Panepinto JA, et al. Exchange blood transfusion compared with simple transfusion for first overt stroke is associated with a lower risk of subsequent stroke: a retrospective cohort study of 137 children with sickle cell anemia. J Pediatr. 2006;149(5):710-712. (Retrospective cohort study; 137 patients)
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  99. Mantadakis E, Ewalt DH, Cavender JD, et al. Outpatient penile aspiration and epinephrine irrigation for young patients with sickle cell anemia and prolonged priapism. Blood. 2000;95(1):78-82. (Prospective study; 15 patients, 39 priapic episodes)
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  108. Nasrullah A, Kerr NC. Sickle cell trait as a risk factor for secondary hemorrhage in children with traumatic hyphema. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123(6):783-790. (Retrospecive chart review; 99 eyes)
  109. Oteng-Ntim E, Meeks D, Seed PT, et al. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood. 2015;125(21):3316- 3325. (Systematic review and meta-analysis)
  110. Okusanya BO, Oladapo OT. Prophylactic versus selective blood transfusion for sickle cell disease in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12:CD010378. (Systematic review)
  111. Hord J, Byrd R, Stowe L, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis and meningitis during the penicillin prophylaxis era in children with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002;24(6):470-472. (Multicenter retrospective chart review; 5885 patient-years)
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  113. Davies EG, Riddington C, Lottenberg R, et al. Pneumococcal vaccines for sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD003885. (Systematic review)
  114. Sox CM, Cooper WO, Koepsell TD, et al. Provision of pneumococcal prophylaxis for publicly insured children with sickle cell disease. JAMA. 2003;290(8):1057-1061. (Retrospecive longtitudinal study; 5 years)
  115. Smith-Whitley K, Zhao H, Hodinka RL, et al. Epidemiology of human parvovirus B19 in children with sickle cell disease. Blood. 2004;103(2):422-427. (Prospective comparative study; 633 patients)
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  118. Donà D, Visentin F, Borgia E, et al. Acute human parvovirus B19 infection in a 6-year old girl with sickle cell disease: a case report. Open J Hematol. 2014;5(7):4. (Case report)
  119. Boatright, DH, Abbott J. Not your typical frequent flyer: overcoming mythology in caring for sickle cell disease patients. Am J Bioeth. 2013;13(4):18-20. (Review)
  120. Smith WR, Jordan LB, Hassell KL. Frequently asked questions by hospitalists managing pain in adults with sickle cell disease. J Hosp Med. 2011;6(5):297-303. (Review)
  121. Badaki-Makun O, Scott JP, Panepinto JA, et al. Intravenous magnesium for pediatric sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis: methodological issues of a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61(6):1049-1054. (Descriptive report)
  122. Brousseau DC, Scott JP, Hillery CA, et al. The effect of magnesium on length of stay for pediatric sickle cell pain crisis. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11(9):968-972. (Prospective single-arm study; 19 patients)
  123. Goldman RD, Mounstephen W, Kirby-Allen M, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for vaso-occlusive episodes in sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 2013;132(6):e1634-e1641. (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial; 106 patients)
  124. Brousseau DC, Scott JP, Badaki-Makun O, et al. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of intravenous magnesium for sickle cell pain crisis in children. Blood. 2015;126(14):1651- 1657. (Multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial; 204 patients)
  125. Griffin TC, McIntire D, Buchanan GR. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone therapy for pain in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(11):733-737. (Prospective, randomized, double-blinded study; 36 patients)
  126. Rogers ZR, Dale JC, Bernini JC, et al. Dexamethasone shortens the duration of painful events requiring hospitalization in children with sickle cell disease: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Blood. 1995;86(10):250a. (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)
  127. Moreira FT, de Oliveira CB, Gomez CM, et al. Is inhaled nitric oxide therapy more effective or safer than the conventional treatment for the treatment of vaso-occlusive crises in sickle-cell anemia? Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2011;57(3):253-254. (Systematic review)
  128. Weiner DL, Hibberd PL, Betit P, et al. Preliminary assessment of inhaled nitric oxide for acute vaso-occlusive crisis in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. JAMA. 2003;289(9):1136-1142. (Prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial; 20 patients)
  129. Head CA, Swerdlow P, McDade WA, et al. Beneficial effects of nitric oxide breathing in adult patients with sickle cell crisis. Am J Hematol. 2010;85(10):800-802. (Prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial; 23 patients)
  130. Galeotti C, Courtois E, Carbajal R. How French paediatric emergency departments manage painful vaso-occlusive episodes in sickle cell disease patients. Acta Paediatr. 2014;103(12):e548-e554. (Descriptive survey study; 81 EDs)
  131. Uprety D, Baber A, Foy M. Ketamine infusion for sickle cell pain crisis refractory to opioids: a case report and review of literature. Ann Hematol. 2014;93(5):769-771. (Review)
  132. Zempsky WT, Loiselle KA, Corsi JM, et al. Use of low-dose ketamine infusion for pediatric patients with sickle cell disease-related pain: a case series. Clin J Pain. 2010;26(2):163- 167. (Case series; 5 patients)
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