Toxic Alcohol | References

<< Toxic Alcohol Ingestion: Prompt Recognition and Management in the Emergency Department (Critical Care Topic and Pharmacology CME)


TOC Will Appear Here




Evidence-based medicine requires a critical ap¬praisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study are included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. * Wiener SW. Toxic Alcohols. In: Hoffman RS, Howland M, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Golfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. (Textbook chapter)
  2. Schier JG. Special Considerations. In: Hoffman RS, Howland M, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Golfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. (Textbook chapter)
  3. Tennant I, Crawford-Sykes A, Ward L, et al. Ethylene glycol poisoning following ingestion of brake fluid. West Indian Med J. 2006;55(4):286-287. (Case report; 1 patient)
  4. Bennett IL, Cary FH, Mitchell GL, et al. Acute methyl alcohol poisoning: a review based on experiences in an outbreak of 323 cases. Medicine. 1953;32(4):432-463. (Retrospective case review; 323 cases)
  5. Kane RL, Talbert W, Harlan J, et al. A methanol poisoning outbreak in Kentucky. Arch Environ Health. 1968;17(1):119- 129. (Epidemiologic study)
  6. Paasma R, Hovda KE, Tikkerberi A, et al. Methanol mass poisoning in Estonia: outbreak in 154 patients. Clin Toxicol. 2007;45(2):152-157. (Retrospective case series; 154 patients)
  7. Asmak D. Methanol related deaths in Edirne. Legal Med. 2006;8(1):39-42. (Retrospective autopsy study; 18 patients)
  8. Hanif M, Mobarak MR, Ronan A, et al. Fatal renal failure caused by diethylene glycol in paracetamol elixir: the Bangladesh epidemic. BMJ. 1995;311(6997):88-91. (Case control study; 339 patients)
  9. Junod SW. Diethylene glycol deaths in Haiti. Public Health Rep. 2000;115(1):78-86. (Public health report; > 30 patients)
  10. O’Brien KL, Selanikio JD, Hecdivert C, et al. Epidemic of pediatric deaths from acute renal failure caused by diethylene glycol poisoning. JAMA. 1995;279(15):1175-1180. (Case-control and cohort study; 109 patients)
  11. * Schier JG, Rubin CS, Miller D, et al. Medication-associated diethylene glycol mass poisoning: a review and discussion on the origin of contamination. J Public Health Policy. 2009;30(2):127-143. (Review)
  12. Schier JG, Hunt DR, Perala A, et al. Characterizing concentrations of diethylene glycol and suspected metabolites in human serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples from the Panama DEG mass poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2013;51(10):923-929. (Case-control study laboratory analysis; 42 patients)
  13. * Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Temple WA, et al. Diethylene glycol poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2009;47(6):525-535. (Review)
  14. Sosa NR, Rodriguez GM, Schier JG, et al. Clinical, laboratory, diagnostic, and histopathologic features of diethylene glycol poisoning – Panama, 2006. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;64(1):38-47. (Retrospective chart review; 46 patients)
  15. Wax P. Elixirs, diluents, and the passage of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(6):456-481. (History of medicine review)
  16. Nordt SP, Vivero LE. Pharmaceutical Additives. Hoffman RS, Howland M, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Golfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. (Textbook chapter)
  17. White NC, Litovitz T, Benson BE, et al. The impact of bittering agents on pediatric ingestions of antifreeze. Clin Pediatr. 2009;48(9):913-921. (Poison control center statistical data report)
  18. Polkelski V, Johnson A, Wright S, et al. Ethylene glycol-mediated tubular injury: identification of critical metabolites and injury pathways. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(2):339-348. (Animal study)
  19. Wallgren H. Relative intoxicating effects on rats of ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol. 1960;16:217- 222. (Animal study)
  20. Montjoy CA, Rahman A, Teba L. Ethylene glycol and methanol poisonings: case series and review. W V Med J. 2010;106(6):17-23. (Retrospective chart review; 14 patients)
  21. Ahmed A, Tschetter PA, Krasowski MD, et al. Massive ethylene glycol poisoning triggers osmotic demyelination syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2014;46(3):e69-e74. (Case report; 1 patient)
  22. * Barceloux DG, Krenzelok EP, Olson K, et al. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(5):537-560. (Review and expert guideline)
  23. Soghoian S, Sinert R, Wiener SW, et al. Ethylene glycol toxicity presenting with non-anion gap metabolic acidosis. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;104(1):22-26. (Retrospective chart review; 79 patients)
  24. McQuade DJ, Dargan PI, Wood DM. Challenges in the diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning. Ann Clin Biochem. 2014;51(Pt 2):167-178. (Review)
  25. Sutter ME, Al-Khameess WA, Abramson JL, et al. Predictors of ethylene glycol ingestion cases called into a regional poison center. J Med Toxicol. 2012;8(2):130-134. (Retrospective chart review, 102 patients)
  26. Jacobsen D, Bredesen JE, Eide I, et al. Anion and osmolal gaps in the diagnosis of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning. Acta Med Scand. 1982;212(1-2):17-20. (Case series; 11 patients)
  27. Darchy B, Abruzzese L, Pitiot O, et al. Delayed admission for ethylene glycol poisoning: lack of elevated serum osmol gap. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25(8):859-861. (Case series; 2 patients)
  28. Coulter CV, Farquhar SE, McSherry CM, et al. Methanol and ethylene glycol acute poisonings – predictors of mortality. Clin Toxicol. 2011;49(10):900-906. (Retrospective chart review; 207 patients)
  29. Head JM. Ethylene glycol ingestion masked by concomitant ethanol intoxication. BMJ Case Rep. 2012. (Case report; 1 patient)
  30. Morgan TJ, Clark C, Clague A. Artifactual elevation of measured plasma L-lactate concentration in the presence of glycolate. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(10):2177-2179. (In vitro laboratory study)
  31. Tintu A, Rouwet E, Russcher H. Interference of ethylene glycol with (L)-lactate measurement is assay-dependent. Ann Clin Biochem. 2013:50(Pt 1):70-72. (In vitro laboratory study)
  32. Sandberg Y, Rood PP, Russcher H, et al. Falsely elevated lactate in severe ethylene glycol intoxication. Neth J Med. 2010;68(1):320-323. (Case report; 1 patient)
  33. Manini AF, Hoffman RS, McMartin KE, et al. Relationship between serum glycolate and falsely elevated lactate in severe ethylene glycol poisoing. J Anal Toxicol. 2009;33(3):174- 176. (Case report; 1 patient)
  34. Pernet P, Beneteau-Burnat B, Vaubourdolle M, et al. False elevation of blood lactate reveals ethylene glycol poisoning. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27(1):132.e1-e2. (Case report; 1 patient)
  35. Verelst S, Vermeersch P, Desmet K. Ethylene glycol poisoning presenting with a falsely elevated lactate level. Clin Toxicol. 2009;47(3):236-238. (Case report; 1 patient)
  36. Brindley PG, Butler MS, Cembrowski G, et al. Falsely elevated point-of-care lactate measurement after ingestion of ethylene glycol. CMAJ. 2007;176(8):1097-1099. (Case report; 1 patient)
  37. Woo MY, Greenway DC, Nadler SP, et al. Artifactual elevation of lactate in ethylene glycol poisoning. J Emerg Med. 2003;25(3):289-293. (Case series; 2 patients)
  38. Hovda KE, Guo C, Austin R, et al. Renal toxicity of ethylene glycol results from internalization of calcium oxalate crystals by proximal tubule cells. Toxicol Lett. 2010;192(3):365-372. (Basic science cell culture study)
  39. Guo C, McMartin KE. The cytotoxicity of oxalate, metabolite of ethylene glycol, is due to calcium oxalate monohydrate formation. Toxicology. 2005;208(3):347-355. (Basic science cell culture study)
  40. Monet C, Richard E, Missonnier S, et al. Secondary hyperox-aluria and nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol poisoning. Arch Pediatr. 2013;20(8):863-866. (Case report; 1 patient)
  41. Snellings WM, Corley RA, McMartin KE, et al. Oral reference dose for ethylene glycol based on oxalate crystal-induced renal tubule degeneration as the critical effect. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;65(2):229-241. (Review)
  42. McMartin K. Are calcium oxalate crystals involved in the mechanism of acute renal failure in ethylene glycol poisoning? Clin Toxicol. 2009;47(9):859-869. (Review)
  43. Scully R, Galdabini J, McNealy B. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 38-1979. N Engl J Med. 1979;301:650-657. (Case report)
  44. Eder AF, McGrath CM, Dowdy YG, et al. Ethylene glycol poisoning: toxicokinetic and analytical factors affecting laboratory diagnosis. Clin Chem. 1998;44(1):168-177 (Case series; 4 patients)
  45. Winter ML, Snodgrass WR. Urine fluorescence in ethylene glycol poisoning. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(19):2006-2007. (Letter to the editor)
  46. Winter ML, Ellis MD, Snodgrass WR. Urine fluorescence using a Wood’s lamp to detect the antifreeze additive sodium fluorescein: a qualitative adjunctive test in suspected ethylene glycol ingestions. Ann Emerg Med. 1990;19(6):663-667. (Volunteer study; 6 patients)
  47. Morgan BW, Ford MD, Follmer R. Ethylene glycol ingestion resulting in brainstem and midbrain dysfunction. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000;38(4):445-451. (Case report; 1 patient)
  48. Froberg K, Dorion RP, McMartin KE. The role of calcium oxalate crystal deposition in cerebral vessels during ethylene glycol poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2006;44(3):315-318. (Case report; 1 patient)
  49. Huttner HB, Berger C, Schwab S. Severe ethylene glycol intoxication mimicking acute basilar artery occlusion. Neurocrit Care. 2005;3(2):171-173. (Case report; 1 patient)
  50. Caparros-Lefebvre D, Policard J, Sengler C, et al. Bipallidal hemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication. Neuroradiology. 2005;47(2):105-107. (Case report; 1 patient)
  51. Corr P, Szolics M. Neuroimaging findings in acute ethylene glycol poisoning. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2012;56(4):442- 444. (Case report; 1 patient)
  52. Rahmann SS, Kadakia S, Balsam L, et al. Autonomic dysfunction as a delayed sequelae of acute ethylene glycol ingestion: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Toxicol. 2012;8(2):124-129. (Case report; 1 patient)
  53. Delany C, Jay WM. Papilledema and abducens nerve palsy following ethylene glycol ingestion. Semin Opthalmol. 2004;19(3-4):72-74. (Case report; 1 patient)
  54. Reddy NJ, Sudini M, Lewis LD. Delayed neurological sequelae from ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and methanol poisonings. Clin Toxicol. 2010;48(10):967-973. (Review)
  55. Freilich BM, Altun Z, Ramesar C, et al. Neuropsychological sequelae of ethylene glycol intoxication: a case study. Appl Neuropsychol. 2007;14(1):56-61. (Case report; 1 patient)
  56. Alzouebi M, Sarrigiannis PG, Hadjivassilou M. Acute polyradiculoneuropathy with renal failure: mind the anion gap. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(7):842-844. (Case report; 1 patient)
  57. Gardner TB, Manning HL, Beelen AP, et al. Ethylene glycol toxicity associated with ischemia, perforation, and colonic oxalate crystal deposition. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38(5):435- 439. (Case report; 1 patient)
  58. * Kruse JA. Methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication. Crit Care Clin. 2012;28(4):661-711. (Review)
  59. * Howland M. Antidotes in Depth: Fomepizole. In: Hoffman RS, Howland M, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Golfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. (Textbook chapter)
  60. Lee SL, Shih HT, Chi YC, et al. Oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol with human alcohol dehydrogenases and the inhibition by ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;191(1-3):26-31. (Basic science pharmacokinetic study)
  61. * Brent J. Fomepizole for ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(21):2216-2223. (Review)
  62. Hovda KE, Julsrud J, Ovrebo S, et al. Studies on ethylene glycol poisoning: one patient – 154 admissions. Clin Toxoicol. 2011;49(6):478-484. (Case report)
  63. Druteika DP, Zed PJ, Ensom MH. Role of fomepizole in the management of ethylene glycol toxicity. Pharmacotherapy. 2002;22(3):365-372. (Review)
  64. Buchanan JA, Alhelail M, Cetaruk EW, et al. Massive ethylene glycol ingestion treated with fomepizole alone – a viable therapeutic option. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6(2):131-134. (Case report; 1 patient)
  65. Velez LI, Shepherd G, Lee YC, et al. Ethylene glycol ingestion treated only with fomepizole. J Med Toxicol. 2007;3(3):125- 128. (Case report; 1 patient)
  66. Caravati EM, Heileson HL, Jones M. Treatment of severe pediatric ethylene glycol intoxication without hemodialysis. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42(3):255-259. (Retrospective chart review; 6 patients)
  67. Levine M, Curry SC, Ruha AM, et al. Ethylene glycol elimination kinetics and outcomes in patients managed without hemodialysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;59(6):527-531. (Retrospective cohort study; 40 patients)
  68. Sivilotti MLA, Burns MJ, McMartin KE, et al. Toxicokinetics of ethylene glycol during fomepizole therapy: implications for management. For the Methylpyrazole for Toxic Alcohols Study. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;36(2):114-125. (Prospective multicenter trial; 19 patients)
  69. * Brent J. Fomepizole for the treatment of pediatric ethylene and diethylene glycol, butoxyethanol, and methanol poisonings. Clin Toxicol. 2010;48(5):401-406. (Review)
  70. Detaille T, Wallemacq P, Clement de Clety S, et al. Fomepizole alone for severe infant ethylene glycol poisoning. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2004;5(5):490-491. (Case report; 1 patient)
  71. Boyer EW, Mejia M, Woolf A, et al. Severe ethylene glycol ingestion treated without hemodialysis. Pediatrics. 2001;107(1):172-173. (Case report; 1 patient)
  72. Baum CR, Langman CB, Oker EE, et al. Fomepizole treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning in an infant. Pediatrics. 2000;106(6):1489-1491. (Case report)
  73. Padmanabhan P, Spiller HA, Ross MP, et al. Is elevated creatinine a reliable marker for methanol toxicity in nitromethane-containing model fuel ingestions in children? Clin Toxicol. 2011;49(1):45-47. (Retrospective chart review; 7 patients)
  74. Howland M. Antidotes in Depth: Ethanol. In: Hoffman RS, Howland M, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Golfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. (Textbook chapter)
  75. Holyoak AL, Fraser TA, Gerperowicz P. Cooling in the tropics: ethylene glycol overdose. Crit Care Resusc. 2011;13(1):28- 32. (Case report; 1 patient)
  76. Roy M, Bailey B, Chalut D, et al. What are the adverse effects of ethanol used as an antidote in the treatment of suspected methanol poisoning in children? J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003;41(2):155-161. (Retrospective chart review; 60 patients)
  77. Wedge MK, Natarajan S, Johanson C, et al. The safety of ethanol infusions for the treatment of methanol or ethylene glycol intoxication: an observational study. CJEM. 2012;14(5):283-289. (Retrospective chart review; 49 patients)
  78. Lepik KJ, Sobolev BG, Levy AR, et al. Medication errors associated with the use of ethanol and fomepizole as antidotes for methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2011;49(5):391-401. (Retrospective chart review; 189 patients)
  79. Rydel JJ, Carlson A, Sharma J, et al. An approach to dialysis for ethylene glycol intoxication. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002;44(1):36-39. (Retrospective chart review; 11 patients)
  80. Vasavada N, Williams C, Hellman RN. Ethylene glycol intoxication: case report and pharmacokinetic perspective. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23(12):1652-1658. (Case report; 1 patient)
  81. Pizon AF, Brooks DE. Hyperosmolality: another indication for hemodialysis following acute ethylene glycol poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2006;44(2):181-183. (Case report; 1 patient)
  82. Hoffman RS. Antidotes in Depth: Thiamine Hydrochloride. In: Hoffman RS, Howland M, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Golfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill; 2015. (Textbook chapter)
  83. Reuler JB, Girard DE, Cooney TG. Current concepts. Wernicke’s encephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(16):1035- 1039. (Review)
  84. Nath R, Thind SK, Murthy MS, et al. Role of pyridoxine in oxalate metabolism. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1990;585:274-284. (Animal study)
  85. Davis LE, Hudson A, Benson BE, et al. Methanol poisoning exposures in the United States: 1993-1998. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(4):499-505. (Retrospective national poison control center data analysis)
  86. Massoumi G, Saberi K, Eizadi-Mood N, et al. Methanol poisoning in Iran, from 2000 to 2009. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2012;35(3):330-333. (Retrospective case series; 51 patients)
  87. Treichel JL, Henry MM, Skumatz CMB, et al. Formate, the toxic metabolite of methanol, in cultured ocular cells. Neuro Toxicol. 2003;24(6):825-834. (Basic science in vitro study)
  88. Sanaei-Zadeh H, Zamani N, Shadnia S. Outcomes of visual disturbances after methanol poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2011;49(2):102-107. (Retrospective case series; 37 cases)
  89. Chung TN, Kim SW, Park YS, et al. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol. Emerg Med J. 2010;27(5):409- 410. (Case report; 1 patient)
  90. Hsu HH, Chen CY, Chen FH, et al. Optic atrophy and cerebral infarcts caused by methanol intoxication. MRI Neuroradiology. 1997;39(3):192-194. (Case report; 1 patient)
  91. Desai T, Sudhalkar A, Vyas U, et al. Methanol poisoning: predictors of visual outcomes. JAMA Opthalmol. 2013;131(3):358- 364. (Retrospective chart review; 122 patients)
  92. Paasma R, Hovda KE, Hassanian-Moghaddam H, et al. Risk factors related to poor outcome after methanol poisoning and the relation between outcomes and antidotes – a multicenter study. Clin Toxicol. 2012;50(9):823-831. (Retrospective observational case series; 203 patients)
  93. McMartin KE, Ambre JJ, Tephaly TR. Methanol poisoning in human subjects: role for formic acid accumulation in metabolic acidosis. Am J Med. 1980;68(3):414-418. (Case series; 2 patients)
  94. Almansori M, Ahmed SN. CT findings in methanol intoxication. CMAJ. 2007;176(5):620-623. (Case report; 1 patient)
  95. Arora V, Nijjar IB, Multani AS, et al. MRI findings in methanol intoxication: a report of two cases. Br J Radiol. 2007;80(958):e243-e246. (Case series; 2 patients)
  96. Bessell-Browne RJ, Bynevelt M. Two cases of methanol poisoning: CT and MRI features. Australasian Radiol. 2007;51(2):175-178. (Case series; 2 patients)
  97. Blanco M, Casado R, Vazquez F, et al. CT and MR imaging findings in methanol intoxication. Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27(2):452-454. (Case report; 1 patient)
  98. Deniz S, Oppenheim C, Lehericy S, et al. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in a case of methanol intoxication. Neuro Toxicol. 2000;21(3):405-408. (Case report; 1 patient)
  99. Dujardin M, Peeters E, Ernst C, et al. Bilateral putaminal necrosis due to methanol abuse. JBR-BTR. 2006;89(6):315-317. (Case report; 1 patient)
  100. Halavaara J, Valanne L, Setala K. Neuroimaging supports the clinical diagnosis of methanol poisoning. Neuroradiology. 2002;44(11):924-928. (Case report; 1 patient)
  101. Hantson P, Duprez Z, Mahieu P. Neurotoxicity to the basal ganglia shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following poisoning by methanol and other substances. J Toxicol Clini Toxicol. 1997;35(2):151-161. (Retrospective case series; 4 patients)
  102. Patankar T, Bichile L, Karnad D, et al. Methanol poisoning: brain computerized tomography scan findings in four patients. Australasian Radiol. 1999;43(4):526-528. (Retrospective case series; 4 patients)
  103. Sefibakht S, Rasekhi AR, Kamali K, et al. Methanol poisoning: acute MR and CT findings in nine patients. Neuroradiology. 2007;49(5):427-435. (Retrospective case series; 9 patients)
  104. Salzman M. Methanol neurotoxicity. Clin Toxicol. 2005;44(1):89-90. (Case report and review; 1 patient)
  105. Taheri MS, Moghaddam HH, Moharamzad Y, et al. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity. Eur J Radiol. 2010;73(2):211-214. (Cohort study; 42 patients)
  106. Pohorecky LA, Brick J. Pharmacology of ethanol. Pharmacol Ther. 1988;36(2-3):335-427. (Review)
  107. Coulter CV, Isbister GK, Duffull SB. The pharmacokinetics of methanol in the presence of ethanol: a case study. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011;50(4):245-251. (Case report; 1 patient)
  108. Mycyk MB, Leikin JB. Antidote review: fomepizole for methanol poisoning. Am J Ther. 2003;10(1):68-70. (Review)
  109. Hantson P, Wallemacq P, Brau M, et al. Two cases of acute methanol poisoning partially treated by oral 4-methylpyrazole. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25(5):528-531. (Case report; 2 patients)
  110. Palatnick W, Redman LW, Sitar DS, et al. Methanol half life during ethanol administration: implications for management of methanol poisoning. Ann Emerg Med. 195;26(2):202-207. (Case series; 3 patients)
  111. Lepik KJ, Sobolev BG, Levy AR, et al. Medication er-rors associated with the use of ethanol and fomepizole as antidotes for methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2011;49(5):391-401. (Retrospective chart review; 189 patients)
  112. Pappas SC, Silverman M. Treatment of methanol poisoning with ethanol and hemodialysis. Can Med Assoc J. 1982;126(12):1391-1394. (Retrospective chart review; 12 patients)
  113. Noker PE, Tephly TR. The role of folates in methanol toxicity. Thurman RG, ed. Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology. Alcohol and Aldehyde Metabolizing Systems-IV. Vol. 132. New York, NY: Springer; 1980, p. 305-315. (Book chapter)
  114. Ferrari LA, Giannuzzi L. Clinical parameters, postmortem analysis and estimation of lethal dose in victims of a massive intoxication with diethylene glycol. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;153(1):45-51. (Retrospective case series; 29 patients)
  115. Hari P, Jain Y, Kabra SK. Fatal encephalopathy and renal failure caused by diethylene glycol poisoning. J Trop Ped. 2006;52(6):442-444. (Retrospective case series; 11 patients)
  116. Okuonhghae HO, Ighogboja IS, Lawson JO, et al. Diethylene glycol poisoning in Nigerian children. Ann Trop Paed. 1992:12(3):235-238. (Retrospective case series; 47 patients)
  117. Pandya SK. An unmitigated tragedy. BMJ. 1988;297(6641): 117-120. (Public health report; 14 patients)
  118. Singh J, Dutta AK, Khare S, et al. Diethylene glycol poisoning in Gurgaon, India, 1998. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(2):88-95. (Retrospective case series; 36 patients)
  119. Akuse RM, Eke FU, Ademola AD, et al. Diagnosing renal failure due to diethylene glycol in children in a resource-constrained setting. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27(6):1021-1028. (Retrospective case series; 60 patients)
  120. Alkahtani S, Sammons H, Choonara I. Epidemics of acute renal failure in children (diethylene glycol toxicity). Arch Dis Child. 2010;95(12):1062-1064. (Review)
  121. Luo MY, Lin BL, Gao ZL. Clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging appearances of venous diethylene glycol poisoning in patients with liver disease. Chin Med J. 2009;122(19):2315-2320. (Retrospective case series; 15 patients)
  122. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fatal poisoning among young children from diethylene glycol-contaminated acetaminophen – Nigeria, 2008-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(48):1345-1347. (Public health report; 57 patients)
  123. Peng XM, Huang MX, Gu L, et al. Characteristics of patients with liver disease intravenously exposed to diethylene glycol in China in 2006. Clin Toxicol. 2009;47(2):124-131. (Retrospective case series; 64 patients)
  124. Brophy PD, Tenenbein M, Gardner J, et al. Childhood diethylene glycol poisoning treated with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor fomepizole and hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;35(5):958-962. (Case report; 1 patient)
  125. Rollins YD, Filley CM, McNutt JT, et al. Fulminant ascending paralysis as a delayed seequela of diethylene glycol (Sterno) ingestion. Neurology. 2002:59(9):1460-1463. (Case report; 1 patient)
  126. Hasbani MJ, Sansing LH, Perrone J, et al. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy following diethylene glycol ingestion. Neurology. 2005;64(7):1273-1275. (Case report; 1 patient)
  127. Alfred S, Coleman P, Harris D, et al. Delayed neurologic sequelae resulting from epidemic diethylene glycol poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2005;43(3):155-159. (Retrospective case series; 7 patients)
  128. Marraffa JM, Holland MG, Stork CM, et al. Diethylene glycol: widely used solvent presents serious poisoning potential. J Emerg Med. 2008;35(4):401-406. (Case report; 1 patient)
  129. Landry GM, Martin S, McMartin KE. Diglycolic acid is the nephrotoxic metabolite in diethylene glycol poisoning inducing necrosis in human proximal tubule cells in vitro. Toxicological Sciences. 2011;124(1):35-44. (Basic science in vitro cell culture study)
  130. Iman YZ, Kamran S, Karim H, et al. Neurological manifestation of recreational fatal and near-fatal diethylene glycol poisonings: case series and review of literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2014;93(10):e62. (Retrospective case series; 3 patients)
  131. Conklin L, Sejvar JJ, Kieszak S, et al. Long-term renal and neurologic outcomes among survivors of diethylene glycol poisoning. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(6):912-917. (Prospective longitudinal study; 32 patients)
  132. Besenhofer LM, McLaren MC, Latimer B, et al. Role of tissue metabolite accumulation in the renal toxicity of diethylene glycol. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123(2):374-383. (Animal study)
  133. Kraut JA, Kurtz I. Toxic alcohol ingestions: clinical features, diagnosis and management. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3(1):208-225. (Review)
  134. Hoffman RS, Smilkstein MJ, Howland MA, et al. Osmol gaps revisited: normal values and limitations. Clin Tox. 1993;31(1):81-93. (Prospective study; 321 patients)
  135. Shin JM, Sachs G, Kraut JA. Simple diagnostic tests to detect toxic alcohol intoxications. Transl Res. 2008;152(4):194-201. (Review)
  136. Hoyte CO, Leikin JB. Management of diethylene glycol ingestion. Clin Toxicol. 2012;50(6):525-527. (Case report; 1 patient)
  137. Arroliga AC, Shehab N, McCarthy K, et al. Relationship of continuous infusion lorazepam to serum propylene glycol concentration in critically ill adults. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(8):1709-1714. (Prospective observational study; 9 patients)
  138. Yaucher NE, Fish JF, Smith HW, et al. Proplyene glycol-associated renal toxicity from lorazepam infusion. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23(9):1094-9. (Retrospective chart review; 8 patients)
  139. Cate JC, Hedrick R. Propylene glycol intoxication and lactic acidosis. N Engl J Med. 1980;303(21):1237. (Case report; 1 patient)
  140. Wilson KC, Reardon C, Farber HW. Propylene glycol toxicity in a patient receiving intravenous diazepam. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(11):815. (Case report; 1 patient)
  141. Denney HE, Daelemans RA, Verpooten GA, et al. Propylene glycol-induced side effects during intravenous nitroglycerin therapy. Intensive Care Med. 1988;14(3):221-226. (Review)
  142. Parker MG, Fraser GL, Watson DM, et al. Removal of propylene glycol and correction of increased osmolar gap by hemodialysis in a patient on high dose lorazepam infusion therapy. Intens Care Med. 2002;28(1):81-84. (Case report; 1 patient)
  143. Stacpoole PW. Lactic acidosis. Endrocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1993;22(2):221-245. (Review)
  144. Brooks DE, Wallace KL. Acute propylene glycol ingestion. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(4):513-516. (Case report; 1 patient)
  145. Morshed KM, Jain SK, McMarin KE. Propylene glycol-mediated injury in a primary cell culture of human proximal tubule cells. Toxicol Sci. 1998;46(2):410-417. (In vitro human cell study)
  146. Yahak JA, Riker RR, Fraser GL, et al. Determination of a lo-razepam dose threshold for using the osmol gap to monitor for propylene glycol toxicity. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28(8):984- 991. (Prospective observational study; 49 patients)
  147. Zar T, Yusufzai I, Sullivan A, et al. Acute kidney injury, hyperosmolality and metabolic acidosis associated with lorazepam. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2007;3(9):515-520. (Case report; 1 patient)
  148. Mullins ME, Barnes BJ. Hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis and intravenous lorazepam. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(11):857- 858. (Letter to the editor)
  149. Tayar J, Jabbour G, Saggi SJ. Severe hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis due to a large dose of intravenous lorazepam. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(16):1253-1254. (Case report; 1 patient)
  150. * Zar T, Graeber C, Perazella MA. Recognition, treatment, and prevention of propylene glycol toxicity. Semin Dial. 2007;20(3):217-219. (Review)
  151. Slaughter RJ, Mason RW, Beasley DM, et al. Isopropanol poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2014;52(5):470-478. (Review)
  152. Stremski E, Hennes H. Accidental isopropanol ingestion in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2000;16(4):238-240. (Retrospective chart review; 91 patients)
  153. Mydler TT, Wasserman GS, Watson WA, et al. Two-week-old infant with isopropanol intoxication. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1993;9(3):146-148. (Case report; 1 patient)
  154. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR, et al. 2011 Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 29th annual report. Clin Toxicol. 2012;50(10):911-1164. (National poison control center data report)
  155. Zaman F, Pervez A, Abreo K. Isopropyl alcohol intoxication: a diagnostic challenge. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;40(3):E12. (Case report; 1 patient)
  156. Alexander CB, McBay AJ, Hudson RP. Isopropanol and isopropanol deaths: ten years’ experience. J Forensic Sci. 1982;27(3):541-548. (Postmortem study; 57 people)
  157. Dyer S, Mycyk MB, Ahrens WR, et al. Hemorrhagic gastritis from topical isopropanol exposure. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36(11):1733-1735. (Case report; 1 patient)
  158. Natowicz M, Donahue J, Gorman L, et al. Pharmacokinetic analysis of a case of isopropanol ingestoxication. Clin Chem. 1985;31(2):326-328. (Case report)
  159. Kelner M, Bailey DN. Isopropanol ingestion: interpretation of blood concentrations and clinical findings. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1983;20(5):497-507. (Case series; 17 patients)
  160. Pappas AA, Ackerman BH, Olsen KM, et al. Isopropanol ingestion: a report of six episodes with isopropanol and acetone serum concentration time data. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1991;29(1):11-21. (Prospective cohort study; 5 patients)
  161. Daniel DR, McAnalley BH, Garriott JC. Isopropyl alchol metabolism after acute intoxication in humans. J Anal Toxicol. 1981;5(3):110-112. (Case series; 2 patients)
  162. Bekka R, Borron SW, Astier A, et al. Treatment of methanol and isopropanol poisoning with intravenous fomepizole. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2001;39(1):59-67. (Case report; 1 patient)
  163. Guo C, McMartin KE. Aluminum citrate inhibits cytotoxicity and aggregation of oxalate crystals. Toxicology. 2007;230(2- 3):117-125. (In vitro cell study)
  164. Abrishami M, Khalifeh M, Shoayb M, et al. Therapeutic effects of high-dose intravenous prednisolone in methanol-induced toxic optic neuropathy. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27(3):261-263. (Case series; 6 patients)
  165. Sodhi PK, Goyal JL, Mehta DK. Methanol-induced optic neuropathy: treatment with intravenous high dose steroids. Int J Clin Pract. 2001;55(9):599-602. (Clinical study; 4 patients)


Publication Information

Gillian A. Beauchamp, MD; Matthew Valento, MD

Publication Date

September 1, 2016

CME Expiration Date

October 1, 2019

CME Credits

4 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™, 4 ACEP Category I Credits, 4 AAFP Prescribed Credits, 4 AOA Category 2-A or 2-B Credits.
Specialty CME Credits: Included as part of the 4 credits, this CME activity is eligible for 0.5 Pharmacology CME credits

Get Permission

CME Information

Related Articles

Toxic Alcohols: Not Always A Clear-Cut Diagnosis (FREE) - Emergency Medicine Practice - November 2010

Get A Sample Issue Of Emergency Medicine Practice
Enter your email to get your copy today! Plus receive updates on EB Medicine every month.
Please provide a valid email address.