<< Ebola Virus Disease: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Diagnostic and Therapeutic Modalities (Pharmacology CME)


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study is included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/index.html. Accessed February 9, 2015. (Website)
  2. Dixon MG, Schafer IJ. Ebola viral disease outbreak--West Africa, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(25):548- 551. (CDC Report)
  3. * Stein RA. What is Ebola? Int J Clin Pract. 2015;69(1):49-58. (Review)
  4. Peacock G, Uyeki TM, Rasmussen SA. Ebola virus disease and children: what pediatric health care professionals need to know. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(12):1087-1088. (Viewpoint)
  5. McElroy AK, Spiropoulou CF. Biomarkers for understanding Ebola virus disease. Biomark Med. 2014;8(9):1053-1056. (Editorial)
  6. World Health Organization. One year into the Ebola epidemic: a deadly, tenacious and unforgiving virus. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/one-year-report/ebola-report-1-year.pdf?ua=1. Accessed February 9, 2015. (Website)
  7. WHO Ebola Response Team, Agua-Agum J, Ariyarajah A, et al. Ebola virus disease among children in West Africa. N Engl J Med. 2015 Mar 26;372(13):1274-7. (Letter to the editor)
  8. King, JW. Ebola virus infection. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/216288-overview. Accessed February 3, 2015. (Website)
  9. Feldmann H. Ebola--a growing threat? N Engl J Med. 2014;371(15):1375-1378. (Perspective)
  10. * Feldmann H, Geisbert TW. Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Lancet. 2011;377(9768):849-862. (Review)
  11. Canadian Critical Care Society, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, Association of Medical Microbiology & Infections Diseases Canada. Ebola clinical care guidelines. Available at: http://www.canadiancriticalcare.org/_assets/Ebola%20Clinical%20Care%20Guidelines_ENG.pdf. Accessed February 3, 2015.
  12. IDSA Ebola Guidance. Guidelines/patient care - emerging clinical issues. Available at: http://www.idsociety.org/2014_ebola/. Accessed February 3, 2015.
  13. Bossi P, Tegnell A, Baka A, et al. Bichat Guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses. Euro Surveill. 2004;9(12):E11-E12. (Practice guidelines)
  14. * Eriksson CO, Uyeki TM, Christian MD, et al. Care of the child with Ebola virus disease. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(2):97-103. (Review)
  15. Bray M. Pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fever. Curr Opin Immunol. 2005;17(4):399-403. (Review)
  16. Bray M, Mahanty S. Ebola hemorrhagic fever and septic shock. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(11):1613-1617. (Editorial)
  17. Guarner J. When the rubber meets the road: dealing with a returning traveler from West Africa during the Ebola outbreak of 2014. Am J Clin Pathol. 2014;142(4):428-430. (Editorial)
  18. Bray M, Chertow DS. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease. In: Hirsch MS and Mitty J, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2015. (Electronic book)
  19. Del Rio C, Mehta AK, Lyon GM 3rd, et al. Ebola hemorrhagic fever in 2014: the tale of an evolving epidemic. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(10):746-748. (Review)
  20. Arthur RR. Ebola in Africa--discoveries in the past decade. Euro Surveill. 2002;7(3):33-36. (Clinical review)
  21. WHO Ebola Response Team. Ebola virus disease in West Africa--the first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(16):1481-1495. (Retrospective; 4010 patients)
  22. Mupere E, Kaducu OF, Yoti Z. Ebola haemorrhagic fever among hospitalised children and adolescents in northern Uganda: epidemiologic and clinical observations. Afr Health Sci. 2001;1(2):60-65. (Retrospective; 90 patients)
  23. American Academy of Pediatrics. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, et al. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Disease. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2012. (Medical textbook)
  24. Dowell SF. Ebola hemorrhagic fever: why were children spared? Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996;15(3):189-191. (Opinion and analysis)
  25. Levine AC, Shetty PP, Henwood PC, et al. Interactive medical case. A Liberian health care worker with fever. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(5):e7. (Case report)
  26. Rodriguez LL, De Roo A, Guimard Y, et al. Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. J Infect Dis. 1999;179 Suppl 1:S170-S176. (Case series; 12 patients)
  27. Geisbert TW, Young HA, Jahrling PB, et al. Mechanisms underlying coagulation abnormalities in Ebola hemorrhagic fever: overexpression of tissue factor in primate monocytes/macrophages is a key event. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(11):1618-1629. (Basic science)
  28. * Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ebola virus disease (EVD) information for clinicians in U.S. healthcare settings. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/healthcare-us/preparing/clinicians.html. Accessed February 23, 2015. (Website)
  29. Kreuels B, Wichmann D, Emmerich P, et al. A case of severe Ebola virus infection complicated by gram-negative septicemia. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(25):2394-2401. (Case report)
  30. * Olupot-Olupot P. Ebola in children: Epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and outcomes. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014. (Review)
  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lassa fever. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/lassa/. Accessed March 4, 2016. (Website)
  32. World Health Organization. 10 Facts on malaria in Africa. Available at: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/malaria/malaria_facts/en/. Accessed February 10, 2015. (Website)
  33. Wilson ML. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(11):1637-1641. (Review)
  34. Crawley J, Chu C, Mtove G, et al. Malaria in children. Lancet. 2010;375(9724):1468-1481. (Review)
  35. Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, et al. Cholera. Lancet. 2012;379(9835):2466-2476. (Review)
  36. Mweu E, English M. Typhoid fever in children in Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13(4):532-540. (Review)
  37. Brusch JL. Typhoid fever. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/231135-overview. Accessed February 23, 2015. (Website)
  38. Parry CM, Hien TT, Dougan G, et al. Typhoid fever. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(22):1770-1782. (Review)
  39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Considerations for discharging persons under investigation (PUI) for Ebola virus disease (Ebola). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/healthcare-us/evaluating-patients/discharging.html. Accessed February 23, 2015. (Website)
  40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Is it flu or Ebola? Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/pdf/is-it-flu-or-ebola.pdf. Accessed March 4, 2016. (Website)
  41. Leung AK, Sigalet DL. Acute abdominal pain in children. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(11):2321-2326. (Review)
  42. Pollack ES. Pediatric abdominal surgical emergencies. Pediatr Ann. 1996;25(8):448-457. (Review)
  43. McCoy CE, Lotfipour S, Chakravarthy B, et al. Emergency medical services public health implications and interim guidance for the Ebola virus in the United States. West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7):723-727. (Review)
  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim guidance for U.S. hospital preparedness for patients under investigation (PUIs) or with confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD): a framework for a tiered approach. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/healthcare-us/preparing/hospitals.html. Accessed February 23, 2015 (Website)
  45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiologic risk factors to consider when evaluating a person for exposure to Ebola virus. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/exposure/risk-factors-when-evaluating-person-for-exposure.html. Accessed February 23, 2015. (Website)
  46. Schieffelin JS, Shaffer JG, Goba A, et al. Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(22):2092-2100. (Retrospective; 106 patients)
  47. Bah EI, Lamah MC, Fletcher T, et al. Clinical presentation of patients with Ebola virus disease in Conakry, Guinea. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(1):40-47. (Retrospective; 80 patients)
  48. Chertow DS, Kleine C, Edwards JK, et al. Ebola virus disease in West Africa--clinical manifestations and management. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(22):2054-2057. (Review)
  49. Leroy EM, Baize S, Lu CY, et al. Diagnosis of Ebola haemorrhagic fever by RT-PCR in an epidemic setting. J Med Virol. 2000;60(4):463-467. (Prospective; 51 patients)
  50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ebola (Ebola virus disease): diagnosis. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/diagnosis/index.html. Accessed February 23, 2015. (Website)
  51. Martin P, Laupland KB, Frost EH, et al. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease. Intensive Care Med. 2015. (Review)
  52. * Meyers L, Frawley T, Goss S, et al. Ebola virus outbreak 2014: clinical review for emergency physicians. Ann Emerg Med. 2015;65(1):101-108. (Review)
  53. Kortepeter MG, Bausch DG, Bray M. Basic clinical and laboratory features of filoviral hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S810-S816. (Review)
  54. Fowler RA, Fletcher T, Fischer WA 2nd, et al. Caring for critically ill patients with Ebola virus disease. Perspectives from West Africa. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190(7):733-737. (Review)
  55. Johnson DW, Sullivan JN, Piquette CA, et al. Lessons learned: critical care management of patients with Ebola in the United States. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(6):1157-1164. (Case series; 2 patients)
  56. West TE, von Saint Andre-von Arnim A. Clinical presentation and management of severe Ebola virus disease. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11(9):1341-1350. (Review)
  57. Lyon GM, Mehta AK, Varkey JB, et al. Clinical care of two patients with Ebola virus disease in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(25):2402-2409. (Case series; 2 patients)
  58. Roddy P, Colebunders R, Jeffs B, et al. Filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak case management: a review of current and future treatment options. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S791- S795. (Review)
  59. Baggi FM, Taybi A, Kurth A, et al. Management of pregnant women infected with Ebola virus in a treatment centre in Guinea, June 2014. Eurosurveillance. 2014;19(49). (Case series; 2 patients)
  60. Henao-Restrepo AM, Longini IM, Egger M, et al. Efficacy and effectiveness of an rVSV-vectored vaccine expressing Ebola surface glycoprotein: interim results from the Guinea ring vaccination cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2015;386(9996):857-866. (Randomized controlled trial; 7651 patients)
  61. World Health Organization. Ebola vaccines, therapies, and diagnostics. Available at: http://www.who.int/medicines/emp_ebola_q_as/en/. Accessed February 23, 2015 (Website)
  62. Bishop BM. Potential and emerging treatment options for Ebola virus disease. Ann Pharmacother. 2015;49(2):196-206. (Review)
  63. Sridhar S. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines. Ther Adv Vaccines. 2015;3(5-6):125-138. (Review)
  64. World Health Organization. Table to convalescent blood and plasma trials. Available at: http://www.who.int/medicines/ebola-treatment/ebola_conv_blood_clinicaltrials/en/. Accessed February 20, 2016. (Website)
  65. World Health Organization. Ebola situation report - 30 March 2016. Available at: http://apps.who.int/ebola/current-situation/ebola-situation-report-30-march-2016. Accessed June 13, 2016. (Website)
  66. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim guidance for management of survivors of Ebola virus disease in U.S. healthcare settings. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/healthcare-us/evaluating-patients/guidance-for-management-of-survivors-ebola.html. Accessed: June 13, 2016. (Website)
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Publication Information

Marlie Dulaurier, MD;Katherine Moyer, DO;Rebecca Wallihan, MD

Publication Date

July 2, 2016

CME Expiration Date

August 2, 2019

CME Credits

4 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™, 4 ACEP Category I Credits, 4 AAFP Prescribed Credits, 4 AOA Category 2-A or 2-B Credits.
Specialty CME Credits: Included as part of the 4 credits, this CME activity is eligible for 0.5 Pharmacology CME credits

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CME Information

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