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<< Cervical Spinal Injury In Pediatric Blunt Trauma Patients: Management In The Emergency Department (Trauma CME)

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study are included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  3. * Leonard JC, Kuppermann N, Olsen C, et al. Factors associated with cervical spine injury in children after blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;58(2):145-155. (Retrospective case-control study; 1600 patients)
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  34. * Ehrlich PF, Wee C, Drongowski R, et al. Canadian C-spine Rule and the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Low-Risk Criteria for C-spine radiography in young trauma patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(5):987-991. (Retrospective case-matched cohort study; 375 patients)
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  36. Pieretti-Vanmarcke R, Velmahos GC, Nance ML, et al. Clinical clearance of the cervical spine in blunt trauma patients younger than 3 years: a multi-center study of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma. 2009;67(3):543-549. (Retrospective cohort; 83 patients)
  37. Katz JS, Oluigbo CO, Wilkinson CC, et al. Prevalence of cervical spine injury in infants with head trauma. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;5(5):470-473. (Retrospective cohort; 905 patients)
  38. Anderson RC, Kan P, Vanaman M, et al. Utility of a cervical spine clearance protocol after trauma in children between 0 and 3 years of age. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;5(3):292-296. (Prospective cohort study; 575 patients)
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  41. Woods WA, Brady W, Pollock G, et al. Flexion-extension cervical spine radiography in pediatric blunt trauma. Skeletal Radiology. 1998;5(6):381-384. (Retrospective case series; 137 patients)
  42. Dwek JR, Chung CB. Radiography of cervical spine injury in children: are flexion-extension radiographs useful for acute trauma? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174(6):1617-1619. (Retrospective case series; 247 patients)
  43. Ralston ME, Chung K, Barnes PD, et al. Role of flexion-extension radiographs in blunt pediatric cervical spine injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8(3):237-245. (Blinded radiographic cohort; 129 patients)
  44. Shaw M, Burnett H, Wilson A, et al. Pseudosubluxation of C2 on C3 in polytraumatized children--prevalence and significance. Clin Radiol. 1999;54(6):377-380. (Retrospective cohort; 138 patients)
  45. Avellino AM, Mann FA, Grady MS, et al. The misdiagnosis of acute cervical spine injuries and fractures in infants and children: the 12-year experience of a level I pediatric and adult trauma center. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21(2):122-127. (Retrospective case series; 37 patients)
  46. Rana AR, Drongowski R, Breckner G, et al. Traumatic cervical spine injuries: characteristics of missed injuries. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(1):151-155. (Case series; 318 patients)
  47. * Nigrovic LE, Rogers AJ, Adelgais KM, et al. Utility of plain radiographs in detecting traumatic injuries of the cervical spine in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(5):426-432. (Retrospective cohort; 206 patients)
  48. Hernandez JA, Chupik C, Swischuk LE. Cervical spine trauma in children under 5 years: productivity of CT. Emerg Radiol. 2004;10(4):176-178. (Retrospective case series; 147 patients)
  49. Adelgais KM, Grossman DC, Langer SG, et al. Use of helical computed tomography for imaging the pediatric cervical spine. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11(3):228-236. (Prospective unblinded randomized trial; 136 patients)
  50. Hadley MN, Walters BC. Guidelines for the management of acute cervical spine and spinal cord injuries. 2001. Available at: http://www.aans.org/Education%20and%20 Meetings/~/media/Files/Education%20and%20Meetingf/ Clinical%20Guidelines/TraumaGuidelines.ashx. Accessed August 22, 2015. (Review)
  51. Berne JD, Velmahos GC, El-Tawil Q, et al. Value of complete cervical helical computed tomographic scanning in identifying cervical spine injury in the unevaluable blunt trauma patient with multiple injuries: a prospective study. J Trauma. 1999;47(5):896-902. (Prospective cohort study; 58 patients)
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  53. Pang D. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children, 2 decades later. Neurosurgery. 2004;55(6):1325- 1342. (Review)
  54. Davis PC, Reisner A, Hudgins PA, et al. Spinal injuries in children: role of MR. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1993;14(3):607- 617. (Case series; 15 patients)
  55. Liao CC, Lui TN, Chen LR, et al. Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in preschool-aged children: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with neurological outcomes. J Neurosurg. 2005;103(1 Suppl):17-23. (Retrospective case series; 9 patients)
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Publication Information
Authors

Andrew Dixon, MD, FRCPC

Publication Date

March 2, 2016

CME Expiration Date

April 2, 2019

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CME Information

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