The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a progressive failure of the immune system, ultimately leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the absence of treatment. Although under different nomenclature, AIDS was first described in the early 1980s when clusters of patients developed opportunistic infections (OIs) not seen in patients with intact immune systems. HIV has spread to every country in the world, creating a global pandemic. In 2012, there were 35.3 million people living with HIV worldwide and 2.3 million new diagnoses that year.1
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