A literature search was performed in PubMed to identify relevant articles pertaining to each of the modalities discussed, utilizing combinations of the following search terms: diagnostic emergency ultrasound, pediatric, cardiac, pericardial effusion, tamponade, cardiac arrest, ejection fraction, focused assessment with sonography in trauma, FAST, pelvic trauma, extended focused assessment sonography in trauma, E-FAST, skull, lung, abdominal, appendicitis, intussusception, pyloric stenosis, cholecystitis, testicular torsion, and pregnancy. Original research, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were the primary literature reviewed. If there was a lack of original research, case reports and case series were evaluated and presented. Additionally, previous reviews were used to identify relevant literature. Critical appraisal for specific indications will be discussed the relevant sections.
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