There are several different types of indwelling CVCs used in pediatric patients who have a need for long-term vascular access. These catheters are either peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), surgically placed central catheters, or totally implanted devices or ports. Surgically placed catheters include tunneled or nontunneled partially implanted catheters. (See Table 1.) The choice of catheter used in each patient is based upon the length of time that the catheter is needed, the reason for its use, and patient-related factors such as age, size, or patient and family preferences. Complications of the long-term use of all types of catheters include malfunction, line fracture or leakage, and thrombosis, as well as infectious complications such as tunnel or pocket infections, CA-BSI, metastatic infections, and sepsis.3,4,5
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