References | ICH in Anticoagulated Patients

<< Intracerebral Hemorrhage In Anticoagulated Patients: Evidence-Based Emergency Department Management (Stroke CME)


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  4. Berkhemer OA, Majoie CB, Dippel DW. Endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2363. (Editorial)
  5. Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, et al. Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(11):1019-1030. (Randomized controlled trial; 316 patients)
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  10. van Asch CJ, Luitse MJ, Rinkel GJ, et al. Incidence, case fatality, and functional outcome of intracerebral haemorrhage over time, according to age, sex, and ethnic origin: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(2):167- 176. (Pooled analysis; 8145 patients)
  11. * Morgenstern LB, Hemphill JC, Anderson C, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2010;41(9):2108-2129. (Clinical guidelines)
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  23. Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA, et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA. 2001;285(18):2370-2375. (Cross-sectional study; 17,974 patients)
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  27. * Kuramatsu JB, Gerner ST, Schellinger PD, et al. Anticoagulant reversal, blood pressure levels, and anticoagulant resumption in patients with anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage. JAMA. 2015;313(8):824-836. (Retrospective cohort; 853 patients)
  28. * Hemphill JC, Greenberg SM, Anderson CS, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2015:STR. 0000000000000069. (Clinical guidelines)
  29. * Broderick J, Connolly S, Feldmann E, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Stroke. 2007;38(6):2001-2023. (Clinical guidelines)
  30. Steiner T, Juvela S, Unterberg A, et al. European Stroke Organisation guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35(2):93-112. (Clinical guidelines)
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Publication Information

Natalie Kreitzer, MD; Opeolu Adeoye, MD, MS, FACEP, FAHA

Publication Date

December 1, 2015

CME Expiration Date

December 31, 2018

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