References | Delirium In The ED

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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. doi:10.1176/appi. books.9780890425596.744053. (Book)
  2. Nassisi D, Okuda Y. ED Management Of Delirium. Emergency Medicine Practice. 2007;9(1):1-20. (Review)
  3. Han JH, Schnelle JF, Ely EW. The relationship between a chief complaint of “altered mental status” and delirium in older emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2014;21(8):937-940. doi:10.1111/acem.12436. (Retrospective; 400 patients)
  4. Barron EA, Holmes J. Delirium within the emergency care setting, occurrence and detection: a systematic review. Emerg Med J. 2013;30(4):263-268. doi:10.1136/emermed-2011-200586. (Systematic review)
  5. Kennedy M, Enander R, Tadiri SP, et al. Delirium risk prediction, healthcare use and mortality of elderly adults in the emergency department. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62(3):462-469. doi:10.1111/jgs.12692. (Prospective; 700 patients)
  6. Thompson K, Allen SC. Outcomes of emergency admission of older patients: impact of cognitive impairment. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2008;69(6):320-323. (Review)
  7. * Han JH, Wilber ST. Altered mental status in older patients in the emergency department. Clin Geriatr Med. 2013;29(1):101- 136. doi:10.1016/j.cger.2012.09.005. (Review)
  8. * Wilber ST. Altered mental status in older emergency department patients. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2006;24(2):299-316. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2006.01.011. (Review)
  9. Witlox J, Eurelings LS, Jonghe JF, et al. Delirium in elderly patients and the risk of postdischarge mortality. JAMA. 2010;304(4):443-451. (Systematic review)
  10. Carpenter CR, Griffey RT, Stark S, et al. Physician and nurse acceptance of technicians to screen for geriatric syndromes in the emergency department. West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4):489-495.(Prospective; 55 participants)
  11. Hustey FM, Meldon SW. The prevalence and documentation of impaired mental status in elderly emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39(3):248–253. doi:10.1067/ mem.2002.122057. (Prospective; 297 patients)
  12. Press Y, Margulin T, Grinshpun Y, et al. The diagnosis of delirium among elderly patients presenting to the emergency department of an acute hospital. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008;48(2):201-204. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2008.01.008. (Retrospective; 319 patients)
  13. Davis D, MacLullich A. Understanding barriers to delirium care: a multicentre survey of knowledge and attitudes amongst UK junior doctors. Age Ageing. 2009;38(5):559-563. doi:10.1093/ageing/afp099. (Prospective; 784 patients)
  14. Han JH, Wilson A, Vasilevskis EE, et al. Diagnosing delirium in older emergency department patients: validity and reliability of the delirium triage screen and the brief confusion assessment method. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;62(5):457-465. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.05.003. (Prospective; 406 patients)
  15. * American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, et al. Geriatric emergency department guidelines. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;63(5):e7-e25. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.02.008. (Practice guidelines)
  16. Wei L, Fearing M, Sternberg EJ, et al. The Confusion Assessment Method: a systematic review of current usage. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(5):823-830. doi:10.1111/j.1532- 5415.2008.01674.x. (Systematic review)
  17. * Inouye S. Delirium in older persons. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(11):1157-1165. (Review)
  18. Mariz J, Santos NC, Afonso H, et al. Risk and clinical-outcome indicators of delirium in an emergency department intermediate care unit (EDIMCU): an observational prospective study. BMC Emerg Med. 2013;13:2. doi:10.1186/1471- 227X-13-2. (Prospective; 238 patients)
  19. Han JH, Zimmerman EE, Cutler N, et al. Delirium in older emergency department patients: recognition, risk factors, and psychomotor subtypes. Acad Emerg Med. 2009;16(3):193- 200. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00339.x. (Prospective; 303 patients)
  20. Uthamalingam S, Gurm GS, Daley M, et al. Usefulness of acute delirium as a predictor of adverse outcomes in patients > 65 years of age with acute decompensated heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108(3):402-408. doi:10.1016/j.amj-card.2011.03.059. (Prospective; 883 patients)
  21. * LaMantia M, Messina FC, Hobgood CD, et al. Screening for delirium in the emergency department: a systematic review. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;63(5):551-560. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.11.010. (Systematic review)
  22. Dhaussy G, Dramé M, Jolly D, et al. Is health-related quality of life an independent prognostic factor for 12-month mortality and nursing home placement among elderly patients hospitalized via the emergency department? J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13(5):453-458. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2011.10.002. (Prospective; 1306 patients)
  23. Dramé M, Lang PO, Novella J-L, et al. Six-month outcome of elderly people hospitalized via the emergency department: the SAFES cohort. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2012;60(3):189-196. doi:10.1016/j.respe.2011.11.004. (Prospective; 1306 patients)
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  25. Han JH, Shintani A, Eden S, et al. Delirium in the emergency department: an independent predictor of death within 6 months. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;56(3):244-252. doi:10.1016/j. annemergmed.2010.03.003. (Prospective; 628 patients)
  26. Maclullich AMJ, Ferguson KJ, Miller T, et al. Unravelling the pathophysiology of delirium: a focus on the role of aberrant stress responses. J Psychosom Res. 2008;65(3):229-238. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.05.019. (Review)
  27. Han JH, Wilson A, Ely EW. Delirium in the older emergency department patient: a quiet epidemic. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010;28(3):611–31. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2010.03.005. (Review)
  28. Flacker JM, Lipsitz L. Neural mechanisms of delirium: cur-rent hypotheses and evolving concepts. Journals Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999;54(6):B239–B246. doi:10.1093/ gerona/54.6.B239. (Review)
  29. Meagher DJ, O’Hanlon D, O’Mahony E, et al. Relationship between symptoms and motoric subtype of delirium. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;12(1):51-56. (Review)
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  39. American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(4):616-631. doi:10.1111/ j.1532-5415.2012.03923.x. (Guideline)
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Publication Information

Nelson Wong, MD; Gallane Abraham, MD

Publication Date

October 1, 2015

CME Expiration Date

October 31, 2018

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CME Information

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