A literature search was performed using PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE® with the search terms anaphylaxis, allergy, and hypersensitivity. The search focused on English-language articles limited to humans that included systematic reviews, clinical trials, multicenter studies, or meta-analyses. References pertinent to emergency treatment were selected, and used for additional manual literature searches. Due to the plethora of literature on allergy and anaphylaxis, the search focused on literature from 1986 to 2014, including clinical diagnosis in the emergency setting and on prehospital and hospital diagnosis and treatment. In addition, a search of the National Guideline Clearinghouse (www.guideline.gov), using these refined search terms, produced guidelines and practice parameters from 2010 and 2011.
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