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<< Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Improving Outcomes Through Early Identification And Aggressive Treatment Strategies (Critical Care Issue)

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References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical ap;praisal of the literature based upon study methodol;ogy and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  53. Coomes TR, Smith SW. Successful use of propofol in refractory delirium tremens. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;30(6):825-828. (Case report)
  54. McCowan C, Marik P. Refractory delirium tremens treated with propofol: a case series. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(6):1781- 1784. (Case series; 4 patients)
  55. Corbett SM, Montoya ID, Moore FA. Propofol-related infusion syndrome in intensive care patients. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28(2):250-258. (Review)
  56. Hughes DW, Vanwert E, Lepori L, et al. Propofol for benzodiazepine-refractory alcohol withdrawal in a non-mechanically ventilated patient. Am J Emerg Med. 2014;32(1):112 e113-e114. (Case report)
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  68. Nagy J, Horvath C, Farkas S, et al. NR2B subunit selective NMDA antagonists inhibit neurotoxic effect of alcohol-withdrawal in primary cultures of rat cortical neurones. Neurochem Int. 2004;44(1):17-23. (Basic science; tissue culture)
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  79. Addolorato G, Balducci G, Capristo E, et al. Gamma-hy;droxybutyric acid (GHB) in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a randomized comparative study versus benzodiazepine. Alcohol Clin Exp Res . 1999;23(10):1596-1604. (Randomized controlled single-blind trial; 60 patients)
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  83. Muzyk AJ, Fowler JA, Norwood DK, et al. Role of alpha(2)- agonists in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45(5):649-657. (Review)
  84. Keaney F, Strang J, Gossop M, et al. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of lofexidine in alcohol withdrawal: lofexidine is not a useful adjunct to chlordiazepoxide. Alcohol Alcohol . 2001;36(5):426-430. (Prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial; 72 patients)
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Publication Information
Authors

Joseph H. Yanta, MD; Greg S. Swartzentruber, MD; Anthony F. Pizon, MD

Publication Date

June 1, 2015

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