References: Multicomponent Assessment, Treatment, And Prevention Of Delirium In Hospitalized Patients
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<< Multicomponent Assessment, Treatment, And Prevention Of Delirium In Hospitalized Patients

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References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

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  2. Francis J, Martin D, Kapoor WN. A prospective study of delirium in hospitalized elderly. JAMA. 1990;263(8):1097-1101. (Prospective observational; 229 patients)
  3. Inouye SK, Rushing JT, Foreman MD, et al. Does delirium contribute to poor hospital outcomes? A three-site epidemiologic study. J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13(4):234-242. (Prospective cohort study; 727 patients)
  4. Levkoff SE, Evans DA, Liptzin B, et al. Delirium. The occurrence and persistence of symptoms among elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(2):334-340. (Prospective observational; 325 patients)
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  6. Inouye SK, Kosar CM, Tommet D, et al. The CAM-S: development and validation of a new scoring system for delirium severity in 2 cohorts. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(8):526-533. (Validation analysis; 1219 patients)
  7. McAvay GJ, Van Ness PH, Bogardus ST Jr, et al. Older adults discharged from the hospital with delirium: 1-year outcomes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(8):1245-1250. (Prospective cohort; 433 patients)
  8. Dyer CB, Ashton CM, Teasdale TA. Postoperative delirium. A review of 80 primary data-collection studies. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(5):461-465. (Systematic review; 26 studies)
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  11. Inouye SK, Charpentier PA. Precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalized elderly persons. Predictive model and interrelationship with baseline vulnerability. JAMA. 1996;275(11):852-857. (Two prospective cohort studies; 196 and 312 patients)
  12. Siddiqi N, House AO, Holmes JD. Occurrence and outcome of delirium in medical in-patients: a systematic literature review. Age Ageing. 2006;35(4):350-364. (Systematic review)
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  14. Carnes M, Howell T, Rosenberg M, et al. Physicians vary in approaches to the clinical management of delirium. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(2):234-239. (Cross-sectional mail survey; 122 patients)
  15. Mach JR, Jr., Dysken MW, Kuskowski M, et al. Serum anticholinergic activity in hospitalized older persons with delirium: a preliminary study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43(5):491- 495. (Prospective; 11 patients)
  16. Campbell N, Boustani M, Limbil T, et al. The cognitive impact of anticholinergics: a clinical review. Clin Interv Aging. 2009;4:225-233. (Systematic review; 27 studies)
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  18. Hshieh TT, Fong TG, Marcantonio ER, et al. Cholinergic deficiency hypothesis in delirium: a synthesis of current evidence. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(7):764-772. (Review)
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  20. van Munster BC, Korevaar JC, Zwinderman AH, et al. Time-course of cytokines during delirium in elderly patients with hip fractures. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(9):1704-1709. (Prospective; 221 patients)
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  23. McCusker J, Cole M, Abrahamowicz M, et al. Environmental risk factors for delirium in hospitalized older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(10):1327-1334. (Prospective observational; 444 patients)
  24. Greer N, Rossom R, Anderson P, et al. Delirium: screening, prevention, and diagnosis - a systematic review of the evidence. Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) Center, Minneapolis VA Medical Center. Department of Veterans Affairs (US):Washington (DC);2011. (Government report)
  25. Young J, Murthy L, Westby M, et al. Diagnosis, prevention, and management of delirium: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ. 2010;341:c3704. (Clinical guideline)
  26. Inouye SK, Foreman MD, Mion LC, et al. Nurses’ recognition of delirium and its symptoms: comparison of nurse and researcher ratings. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(20):2467-2473. (Prospective; 797 patients)
  27. Collins N, Blanchard MR, Tookman A, et al. Detection of delirium in the acute hospital. Age Ageing. 2010;39(1):131-135. (Prospective; 710 patients)
  28. Wong CL, Holroyd-Leduc J, Simel DL, et al. Does this patient have delirium?: value of bedside instruments. JAMA. 2010;304(7):779-786. (Systematic review)
  29. Inouye SK, van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, et al. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113(12):941-948. (Prospective cohort study; 56 patients)
  30. Marcantonio ER, Ngo LH, O’Connor M, et al. 3D-CAM: derivation and validation of a 3-minute diagnostic interview for CAM-defined delirium: a cross-sectional diagnostic test study. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(8):554-561. (Prospective; 201 patients)
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  33. Walker S, McGeer A, Simor AE, et al. Why are antibiotics prescribed for asymptomatic bacteriuria in institutional­ized elderly people? A qualitative study of physicians‚ and nurses‚ perceptions. CMAJ. 2000;163(3):273-277. (Report of focus groups with 22 physicians and 16 nurses)
  34. Naughton BJ, Moran M, Ghaly Y, et al. Computed tomography scanning and delirium in elder patients. Acad Emerg Med. 1997;4(12):1107-1110. (Prospective observation study; 560 patients)
  35. Hufschmidt A, Shabarin V. Diagnostic yield of cerebral imaging in patients with acute confusion. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;118(4):245-250. (Retrospective study; 294 patients)
  36. Theisen-Toupal J, Breu AC, Mattison ML, et al. Diagnostic yield of head computed tomography for the hospitalized medical patient with delirium. J Hosp Med. 2014;9(8):497-501. (Retrospective study; 398 patients)
  37. Metersky ML, Williams A, Rafanan AL. Retrospective analysis: are fever and altered mental status indications for lumbar puncture in a hospitalized patient who has not undergone neurosurgery? Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25(2):285-288. (Retrospective; 232 patients)
  38. Privitera M, Hoffman M, Moore JL, et al. EEG detection of nontonic-clonic status epilepticus in patients with altered consciousness. Epilepsy Res. 1994;18(2):155-166. (Prospective observational; 298 patients)
  39. Siddiqi N, Stockdale R, Britton AM, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(2):CD005563. (Systematic review)
  40. Sheth RD, Drazkowski JF, Sirven JI, et al. Protracted ictal confusion in elderly patients. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(4):529-532. (Case series; 22 patients) 
  41. Inouye SK, Bogardus ST Jr, Charpentier PA, et al. A Multi­component intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients. N Engl J Med. 1999.340:669-676. (Prospective trial; 852 patients)
  42. Siddiqi N, Stockdale R, Britton AM, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(2):CD005563. (Systematic review)
  43. Mudge AM, Maussen C, Duncan J, et al. Improving quality of delirium care in a general medical service with established interdisciplinary care: a controlled trial. Intern Med J. 2013;43(3):270-277. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 206 patients)
  44. Finotto S, Artioli G, Davoli L, et al. Nursing interventions for the prevention of the delirium in intensive care unit (ICU): a randomized study. Prof Inferm. 2006;59(4):228-232. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 48 patients)
  45. Holt R, Young J, Heseltine D. Effectiveness of a multi-component intervention to reduce delirium incidence in elderly care wards. Age Ageing. 2013;42(6):721-727. (Prospective nonrandomized controlled trial; 436 patients) 
  46. Martinez F, Tobar C, Hill N. Preventing delirium: should non-pharmacological, multicomponent interventions be used? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Age Ageing. 2015;44(2):196-204. (Systematic review and meta-analysis) 
  47. Marcantonio ER, Flacker JM, Wright RJ, et al. Reducing delirium after hip fracture: a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(5):516-522. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 126 patients)
  48. Martinez FT, Tobar C, Beddings CI, et al. Preventing delirium in an acute hospital using a non-pharmacological intervention. Age Ageing. 2012;41(5):629-634. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 287 patients) 
  49. Vidan MT, Sanchez E, Alonso M, et al. An intervention integrated into daily clinical practice reduces the incidence of delirium during hospitalization in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(11):2029-2036. (Prospective nonrandomized controlled trial; 542 patients)
  50. The American Geriatrics Society Expert Panel On Postoperative Delirium In Older Adults. postoperative delirium in older adults: best practice statement from the American Geriatrics Society. J Am Coll Surg. 2014. (Clinical guideline) 
  51. Robinson S, Vollmer C. Undermedication for pain and precipitation of delirium. Medsurg Nurs. 2010;19(2):79-83; quiz 84. (Retrospective case-control; 86 patients)
  52. Morrison RS, Magaziner J, Gilbert M, et al. Relationship between pain and opioid analgesics on the development of delirium following hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(1):76-81. (Prospective cohort; 541 patients) 
  53. Lynch EP, Lazor MA, Gellis JE, et al. The impact of postoperative pain on the development of postoperative delirium. Anesth Analg. 1998;86(4):781-785. (Prospective observational) 
  54. Vaurio LE, Sands LP, Wang Y, et al. Postoperative delirium: the importance of pain and pain management. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(4):1267-1273. (Prospective observational; 333 patients)
  55. Krenk L, Rasmussen LS, Hansen TB, et al. Delirium after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty. Br J Anaesth.  2012;108(4):607-611. (Prospective observation; 225 patients)
  56. Leung JM, Sands LP, Rico M, et al. Pilot clinical trial of gabapentin to decrease postoperative delirium in older patients.Neurology. 2006;67(7):1251-1253. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 21 patients)
  57.  ong HK, Sands LP, Leung JM. The role of postoperative analgesia in delirium and cognitive decline in elderly patients: a systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(4):1255-1266. (Systematic review)
  58. Marcantonio ER, Juarez G, Goldman L, et al. The relationship of postoperative delirium with psychoactive medications. JAMA. 1994;272(19):1518-1522. (Nested case-control study; 245 patients)
  59. Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, et al. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(22):2716-2724. (Description of guideline development)
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  61. Hein C, Forgues A, Piau A, et al. Impact of polypharmacy on occurrence of delirium in elderly emergency patients. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014;15(11):850 e811-855. (Prospective observational cohort; 410 patients)
  62. Larsen KA, Kelly SE, Stern TA, et al. Administration of olanzapine to prevent postoperative delirium in elderly joint-replacement patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Psychosomatics. 2010;51(5):409-418. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 495 patients)
  63. van den Boogaard M, Schoonhoven L, van Achterberg T, et al. Haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk for delirium. Crit Care. 2013;17(1):R9. (Prospective nonrandomized controlled trial; 177 patients)
  64. Wang W, Li HL, Wang DX, et al. Haloperidol prophylaxis decreases delirium incidence in elderly patients after noncardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(3):731-739. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 457 patients)
  65. Kalisvaart KJ, de Jonghe JF, Bogaards MJ, et al. Haloperidol prophylaxis for elderly hip-surgery patients at risk for delirium: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(10):1658-1666. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 430 patients)
  66. Page VJ, Ely EW, Gates S, et al. Effect of intravenous haloperidol on the duration of delirium and coma in critically ill patients (Hope-ICU): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1(7):515-523. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 141 patients)
  67. Vochteloo AJ, Moerman S, van der Burg BL, et al. Delirium risk screening and haloperidol prophylaxis program in hip fracture patients is a helpful tool in identifying high-risk patients, but does not reduce the incidence of delirium. BMC Geriatr. 2011;11:39. (Prospective cohort; 445 patients)
  68. Meyer-Massetti C, Cheng CM, Sharpe BA, et al. The FDA extended warning for intravenous haloperidol and torsades de pointes: how should institutions respond? J Hosp Med. 2010;5(4):E8-16. (Case review)
  69. Breitbart W, Marotta R, Platt MM, et al. A double-blind trial of haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and lorazepam in the treatment of delirium in hospitalized AIDS patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153(2):231-237. (Prospective randomized controlled study; 30 patients)
  70. Lonergan E, Britton AM, Luxenberg J, et al. Antipsychotics for delirium. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(2):CD005594. (Systematic review)
  71. Han CS, Kim YK. A double-blind trial of risperidone and haloperidol for the treatment of delirium. Psychosomatics. 2004;45(4):297-301. (Prospective randomized controlled study; 28 patients)
  72. Ballard C, Hanney ML, Theodoulou M, et al. The Dementia Antipsychotic Withdrawal Trial (DART-AD): long-term follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8(2):151-157. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 165 patients)
  73. Fick DM, Semla TP. 2012 American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria: new year, new criteria, new perspective. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(4):614-615. (Clinical guideline) 
  74. van Meenen LC, van Meenen DM, de Rooij SE, et al. Risk prediction models for postoperative delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62(12):2383- 2390. (Systematic review)
  75.  Inouye SK, Baker DI, Fugal P, et al. Dissemination of the hospital elder life program: implementation, adaptation, and successes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(10):1492-1499. (Crosssectional survey)
  76. Bradley EH, Schlesinger M, Webster TR, et al. Translating research into clinical practice: making change happen. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(11):1875-1882. (Qualitative in-depth interviews)
  77. Bradley EH, Webster TR, Baker D, et al. After adoption: sustaining the innovation. A case study of disseminating the hospital elder life program. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(9):1455- 1461. (Longitudinal qualitative study)
  78. Fick DM, Steis MR, Waller JL, et al. Delirium superimposed on dementia is associated with prolonged length of stay and poor outcomes in hospitalized older adults. J Hosp Med. 2013;8(9):500-505. (Prospective cohort; 139 patients)
  79. Francis J, Kapoor WN. Prognosis after hospital discharge of older medical patients with delirium. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40(6):601-606. (Descriptive cohort; 223 patients)
  80.  Kiely DK, Marcantonio ER, Inouye SK, et al. Persistent delirium predicts greater mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(1):55- 61. (Observational cohort; 412 patients)
  81. McCusker J, Cole MG, Dendukuri N, et al. Does delirium increase hospital stay? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(11):1539-1546. (Prospective cohort study; 359 patients)
  82. Overshott R, Karim S, Burns A. Cholinesterase inhibitors for delirium. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(1):CD005317. (Systematic review)
  83. Marcantonio ER, Palihnich K, Appleton P, et al. Pilot randomized trial of donepezil hydrochloride for delirium after hip fracture. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59 Suppl 2:S282-288. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 16 patients)
  84. Cole MG, Ciampi A, Belzile E, et al. Persistent delirium in older hospital patients: a systematic review of frequency and prognosis. Age Ageing. 2009;38(1):19-26. (Systematic review) 
  85. Leslie DL, Marcantonio ER, Zhang Y, et al. One-year health care costs associated with delirium in the elderly population. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(1):27-32. (Retrospective cost analysis; 841 patients)
  86. Leslie DL, Inouye SK. The importance of delirium: economic and societal costs. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59 Suppl 2:S241-243. (Review)
  87. Rizzo JA, Bogardus ST, Jr., Leo-Summers L, et al. Multicomponent targeted intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients: what is the economic value? Med Care. 2001;39(7):740-752. (Retrospective cost analysis; 852 patients)
  88.  Zaubler TS, Murphy K, Rizzuto L, et al. Quality improvement and cost savings with multicomponent delirium interventions: replication of the Hospital Elder Life Program in a community hospital. Psychosomatics. 2013;54(3):219-226. (Prospective observational study; 595 patients)
  89. Strijbos MJ, Steunenberg B, van der Mast RC, et al. Design and methods of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP), a multicomponent targeted intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients: efficacy and cost-effectiveness in Dutch health care. BMC Geriatr. 2013;13:78. (Description of stepped-wedge-design study)  
Publication Information
Authors

Frank Merritt, MD; Ethan Cumbler, MD, FACP, FHM

Publication Date

March 1, 2015

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