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<< Drowning In The Adult Population: Emergency Department Resuscitation And Treatment (Trauma CME)

References

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. * World Health Organization. Global report on drowning: Preventing a leading killer. 2014. (Report)
  2. Papa L, Hoelle R, Idris A. Systematic review of definitions for drowning incidents. Resuscitation. 2005;65(3):255-264. (Systematic review)
  3. * World Congress on Drowning. Recommendations of the World Congress on Drowning. 2002. Available at: http://www.ilsf.org/drowning-prevention/report. Accessed October 1, 2014. (Consensus guidelines)
  4. Linnan M, Rahman A, Scarr J, et al. Child drowning: evidence for a newly recognized cause of child mortality in low and middle income countries in Asia. 2012. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Child_Drowning_2012.pdf. Accessed December 1, 2014. (Government report)
  5. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 10 leading causes of injury deaths by age group highlighting unintentional injury deaths, United States – 2010. 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/pdf/10LCID_Unintentional_Deaths_2010-a.pdf. Accessed October 1, 2014. (Government report)
  6. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Unintentional drowning: get the facts. 2014. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/water-safety/waterinjuries-factsheet.html. Accessed October 1, 2014. (Government report)
  7. International Life-Saving Federation. World drowning report: 2007 edition. 2007. Available at: http://www.ilsf.org/drowning-prevention/report. Accessed October 1, 2014. (Report)
  8. Lin CY, Wang YF, Lu TH, et al. Unintentional drowning mortality, by age and body of water: an analysis of 60 countries. Inj Prev. 2015;21(e1):e43-e50. (Database analysis)
  9. * Szpilman D, Bierens JJ, Handley AJ, et al. Drowning. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(22):2102-2110. (Review)
  10. Lunetta P, Modell JH, Sajantila A. What is the incidence and significance of “dry-lungs” in bodies found in water? Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2004;25(4):291-301. (Autopsy analysis; 578 cases)
  11. Shattock MJ, Tipton MJ. ‘Autonomic conflict’: a different way to die during cold water immersion? J Physiol. 2012;590(Pt 14):3219-3230. (Review)
  12. Appelboam R, Williams MP, Duffy MR. Sand aspiration: a case report and review of the radiological features and management. Anaesthesia. 2010;65(8):848-854. (Case report)
  13. Layon AJ, Modell JH. Drowning: update 2009. Anesthesiology. 2009;110(6):1390-1401. (Review)
  14. Driscoll TR, Harrison JA, Steenkamp M. Review of the role of alcohol in drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity. Inj Prev. 2004;10(2):107-113. (Review)
  15. Papadodima SA, Sakelliadis EI, Kotretsos PS, et al. Cardiovascular disease and drowning: autopsy and laboratory findings. Hellenic J Cardiol. 2007;48(4):198-205. (Autopsy analysis; 168 cases)
  16. Tester DJ, Medeiros-Domingo A, Will ML, et al. Unexplained drownings and the cardiac channelopathies: a molecular autopsy series. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86(10):941-947. (Autopsy analysis; 35 cases)
  17. Ackerman MJ, Tester DJ, Porter CJ, et al. Molecular diagnosis of the inherited long-QT syndrome in a woman who died after near-drowning. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(15):1121-1125. (Autopsy analysis; 1 case)
  18. Bell GS, Gaitatzis A, Bell CL, et al. Drowning in people with epilepsy: how great is the risk? Neurology. 2008;71(8):578-582. (Meta-analysis)
  19. Chang CY, Lu TH, Cheng TJ. Trends in reporting injury as a cause of death among people with epilepsy in the U.S., 1981- 2010. Seizure. 2014;23(10):836-843. (Database analysis)
  20. * Watson RS, Cummings P, Quan L, et al. Cervical spine injuries among submersion victims. J Trauma. 2001;51(4):658-662. (Retrospective chart review; 2244 cases)
  21. Hwang V, Shofer FS, Durbin DR, et al. Prevalence of traumatic injuries in drowning and near drowning in children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(1):50-53. (Retrospective chart review; 143 cases)
  22. Davis LG. Suicidal drowning in south Florida. J Forensic Sci. 1999;44(5):902-905. (Autopsy analysis; 267 cases)
  23. Turgut A, Turgut T. A study on rescuer drowning and multiple drowning incidents. J Safety Res. 2012;43(2):129-132. (Retrospective media report review; 114 cases)
  24. Turgut A. A study on multiple drowning syndromes. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2012;19(1):63-67. (Retrospective media report review; 31 cases)
  25. Franklin RC, Pearn JH. Drowning for love: the aquatic victim-instead-of-rescuer syndrome: drowning fatalities involving those attempting to rescue a child. J Paediatr Child Health. 2011;47(1-2):44-47. (Retrospective case series; 26 cases)
  26. * Zafren K, Giesbrecht GG, Danzl DF, et al. Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia: 2014 update. Wilderness Environ Med. 2014;25(4 Suppl):S66-S85. (Practice guidelines)
  27. Brown DJ, Brugger H, Boyd J, Paal P. Accidental hypothermia. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(20):1930-1938. (Review)
  28. Wanscher M, Agersnap L, Ravn J, et al. Outcome of accidental hypothermia with or without circulatory arrest: experience from the Danish Præstø Fjord boating accident. Resuscitation. 2012;83(9):1078-1084. (Case series; 7 cases)
  29. * Szpilman D. Near-drowning and drowning classification: a proposal to stratify mortality based on the analysis of 1831 cases. Chest. 1997;112(3):660-665. (Retrospective review; 1831 cases)
  30. Modell JH, Moya F. Effects of volume of aspirated fluid during chlorinated fresh water drowning. Anesthesiology. 1966;27(5):662-672. (Experimental animal model)
  31. Saidel-Odes LR, Almog Y. Near-drowning in the Dead Sea: a retrospective observational analysis of 69 patients. Isr Med Assoc J. 2003;5(12):856-858. (Retrospective chart review; 69 cases)
  32. * Causey AL, Tilelli JA, Swanson ME. Predicting discharge in uncomplicated near-drowning. Am J Emerg Med. 2000;18(1):9-11. (Retrospective chart review; 48 cases)
  33. Gregorakos L, Markou N, Psalida V, et al. Near-drowning: clinical course of lung injury in adults. Lung. 2009;187(2):93- 97. (Retrospective chart review; 43 cases)
  34. Romano C, Brown T, Frewen TC. Assessment of pediatric near-drowning victims: is there a role for cranial CT? Pediatr Radiol. 1993;23(4):261-263. (Retrospective chart review; 19 cases)
  35. Rafaat KT, Spear RM, Kuelbs C, et al. Cranial computed tomographic findings in a large group of children with drowning: diagnostic, prognostic, and forensic implications. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008;9(6):567-572. (Retrospective chart review; 156 cases)
  36. Baldursdottir S, Sigvaldason K, Karason S, et al. Induced hypothermia in comatose survivors of asphyxia: a case series of 14 consecutive cases. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54(7):821- 826. (Case series; 14 cases)
  37. Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, et al. The Canadian CT head rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet. 2001;357(9266):1391-1396. (Prospective cohort ; 3121 cases)
  38. Como JJ, Diaz JJ, Dunham CM, et al. Practice management guidelines for identification of cervical spine injuries following trauma: update from the eastern association for the surgery of trauma practice management guidelines committee. J Trauma. 2009;67(3):651-659. (Practice guidelines)
  39. Dottorini M, Eslami A, Baglioni S, et al. Nasal-continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of near-drowning in freshwater. Chest. 1996;110(4):1122-1124. (Case series; 2 cases)
  40. Pilcher J, Weatherall M, Shirtcliffe P, et al. The effect of hyperoxia following cardiac arrest - a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal trials. Resuscitation. 2012;83(4):417- 422. (Review)
  41. Wang CH, Chang WT, Huang CH, et al. The effect of hyperoxia on survival following adult cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Resuscitation. 2014;85(9):1142-1148. (Systematic review)
  42. Spindelboeck W, Schindler O, Moser A, et al. Increasing arterial oxygen partial pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with improved rates of hospital admission. Resuscitation. 2013;84(6):770-775. (Prospective cohort; 145 cases)
  43. * Vanden Hoek, TL, Morrison LJ, American Heart Association, et al. 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science. Part 12: Cardiac arrest in special situations. Circulation. 2010;122(18):S829-S861. (Consensus guidelines)
  44. Nolan JP, Soar J, ERC Guidelines Writing Group, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010. Section 8: Cardiac arrest in special circumstances: Electrolyte abnormalities, poisoning, drowning, accidental hypothermia, hyperthermia, asthma, anaphylaxis, cardiacsurgery, trauma, pregnancy, electrocution. Resuscitation. 2010;81(10):1400-1433. (Consensus guidelines)
  45. ARDS Clinical Network. Mechanical ventilation protocol summary. ARDSnet. 2008. Available at: http://www.ardsnet.org/system/files/6mlcardsmall_2008update_final_JULY2008.pdf. Accessed October 1, 2014. (Clinical protocol)
  46. Rudolph SS, Barnung S. Survival after drowning with cardiac arrest and mild hypothermia. ISRN Cardiol. 2011;2011:895625. (Case report; 1 case)
  47. Choi SP, Youn CS, Park KN, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia in adult cardiac arrest because of drowning. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012;56(1):116-123. (Retrospective chart review; 20 cases)
  48. Wee JH, You YH, Lim H, et al. Outcomes of asphyxial cardiac arrest patients who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia: a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Resuscitation. 2014 (Multicenter retrospective cohort study; 111 cases)
  49. Guenther U, Varelmann D, Putensen C, et al. Extended therapeutic hypothermia for several days during extracorporeal membrane-oxygenation after drowning and cardiac arrest two cases of survival with no neurological sequelae. Resuscitation. 2009;80(3):379-381. (Case series; 2 cases)
  50. Champigneulle B, Bellenfant-Zegdi F, Follin A, et al. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for refractory cardiac arrest after drowning: an 11-year experience. Resuscitation. 2015;88:136-131. (Retrospective study; 20 cases)
  51. Sawamoto K, Bird SB, Katayama Y, et al. Outcome from severe accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest resuscitated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am J Emerg Med. 2014;32(4):320-324. (Retrospective observational study; 26 patients)
  52. Ender PT, Dolan MJ. Pneumonia associated with near-drowning. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25(4):896-907. (Review)
  53. Tadie JM, Heming N, Serve E, et al. Drowning associated pneumonia: a descriptive cohort. Resuscitation. 2012;83(3):399-401. (Retrospective cohort; 21 patients)
  54. Foex BA, Boyd R. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Corticosteroids in the management of near-drowning. Emerg Med J. 2001;18(6):465-466. (Systematic review)
  55. Tipton MJ, Golden FS. A proposed decision-making guide for the search, rescue and resuscitation of submersion (head under) victims based on expert opinion. Resuscitation. 2011;82(7):819-824. (Systematic review; 43 cases)
  56. Pratt FD, Haynes BE. Incidence of “secondary drowning” after saltwater submersion. Ann Emerg Med. 1986;15(9):1084- 1087. (Prospective cohort; 52 patients)
  57. Noonan L, Howrey R, Ginsburg CM. Freshwater submersion injuries in children: a retrospective review of seventy-five hospitalized patients. Pediatrics. 1996;98(3 Pt 1):368-371. (Retrospective chart review; 72 patients)
  58. Claesson A, Lindqvist J, Herlitz J. Cardiac arrest due to drowning--changes over time and factors of importance for survival. Resuscitation. 2014;85(5):644-648. (Database analysis; 529 cases)
  59. Dyson K, Morgans A, Bray J, et al. Drowning related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: characteristics and outcomes. Resuscitation. 2013;84(8):1114-1118. (Database analysis; 336 cases)
  60. * Nitta M, Kitamura T, Iwami T, et al. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to drowning among children and adults from the Utstein Osaka project. Resuscitation. 2013;84(11):1568-1573. (Prospective observational study; 1737 cases)
  61. * Quan L, Mack CD, Schiff MA. Association of water temperature and submersion duration and drowning outcome. Resuscitation. 2014;85(6):790-794. (Retrospective case control study; 1094 cases)
  62. Ballesteros MA, Gutierrez-Cuadra M, Munoz P, et al. Prognostic factors and outcome after drowning in an adult population. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53(7):935-940. (Retrospective observational study; 43 cases)
  63. Wallis BA, Watt K, Franklin RC, et al. Interventions associated with drowning prevention in children and adolescents: Systematic literature review. Inj Prev. 2014. (Systematic review)
  64. Miller CC, 3rd, Calder-Becker K, Modave F. Swimming-induced pulmonary edema in triathletes. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28(8):941-946. (Prospective case-control study; 31 cases)
  65. Cochard G, Henckes A, Deslandes S, et al. Swimming-induced immersion pulmonary edema while snorkeling can be rapidly life-threatening: case reports. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2013;40(5):411-416. (Case series; 2 cases)
  66. Heimlich HJ, Patrick EA. Using the Heimlich maneuver to save near-drowning victims. Postgrad Med. 1988;84(2):62-67, 71-73. (Review)
  67. Rosen P, Stoto M, Harley J. The use of the heimlich maneuver in near drowning: Institute of Medicine report. J Emerg Med. 1995;13(3):397-405. (Consensus statement)
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