<< Evidence-Based Hospital Management Of Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

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When looking at the I-PRESERVE trial, female patients were likely to be older, obese, and have chronic kidney disease, and hypertension, but less likely than men to have an ischemic cause, atrial fibrillation, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.147 In addition, women had lower risk of all-cause events (deaths and hospitalizations), even after adjusting for baseline characteristics.147 The gender and age bias in HF-PEF may be partially explained by the decline in female estrogen levels with age. Postmenopausal women develop vasculopathy at a higher frequency than their male counterparts.

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