<< Dyspnea: Fear, Loathing, and Physiology


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, each reference will note (in bold type following the reference) pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study. In addition, the most informative references cited in the paper, as determined by the author, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  3. Zimmerman MI, Miller A, Brown LK, et al. Estimated vs. actual values for dead space/tidal volume ratios during incremental exercise in patients evaluated for dyspnea. Chest 1994;131-136.
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  56. 56. Teigen CL, Maus TP, Sheedy PF, et al. Pulmonary embolism: Diagnosis with contrast-enhanced electron-beam CT and comparison with pulmonary angiography. Radiology 1995;194:313-319. (Comparative study; 66 patients)
  57. Drucker EA, Rivitz SM, Shepard JO, et al. Acute pulmonaryembolism: Assessment of helical CT for diagnosis. Radiology 1998;209:235-241. (Prospective study; 47 patients)
  58. Sostman HD, Layish DT, Tapson VF, et al. Prospective comparison of helical CT and MR imaging in clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism. J Med Res 1996;6:275- 281. (Prospective study; 86 patients)
  59. van Rossum AB, Treurniet FE, Kieft GJ, et al. Role of spiralvolumetric computed tomographic scanning in the assessment of patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism and an abnormal ventilation-perfusion lung scan. Thorax 1996;51:23-28. (Prospective study; 249 patients)
  60. Mayo JR, Remy-Jardin M, Muller NL, et al. Pulmonary embolism: Prospective comparison of spiral CT with ventilation perfusion scintigraphy. Radiology 1997;205:447-452. (Prospective study; 142 patients)
  61. Pruszczyk P, Torbicki A, Pacho R, et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of suspected severe pulmonary embolism. Chest 1997;112:722- 728. (Comparative study; 49 patients)
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Publication Information

Jeffrey A. Kline

Publication Date

August 1, 1999

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