References: Managing Asymptomatic Elevated Blood Pressure

<< An Evidence-Based Approach To Managing Asymptomatic Elevated Blood Pressure In The Emergency Department


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References Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, random ized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report. To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the ref erence, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

1.* Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure - The JNC 7 Report. JAMA. 2003;289(19):2560-2572. (Consensus paper)

2. Schwartz GL. Hypertension. Scientific American Medicine. 2010. Available at: Accessed June 5, 2014.

3. Levy P. Hypertensive emergencies - on the cutting edge. Paper presented at: 2010 EMCREG-International Web Symposia on Cardiovascular and Neurovascular Emergencies; 2010.

4. Shayne PH, Pitts SR. Severely increased blood pressure in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;41(4):513- 529. (Guideline)

5.* James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520. (Systematic review)

6.* 2013 Practice guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC): ESH/ESC Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013;31(10):1925-1938. (Guideline)

7. McKinnon M, O’Neill JM. Hypertension in the emergency department: treat now, later, or not at all. Emergency Medicine Practice. 2010;12(6):24. (Review)

8.* Wolf SJ, Lo B, Shih RD, et al. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients in the emergency department with asymptomatic elevated blood pressure. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;62(1):59-68. (Systematic review)

9.* Borden WB, Maddox TM, Tang F, et al. Impact of the 2014 expert panel recommendations for management of high blood pressure on contemporary cardiovascular practice: insights from the NCDR PINNACLE Registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(21):2196-2203. (Cohort study; 1,185,253 patients)

10. Go AS, Bauman MA, Coleman King SM, et al. An effective approach to high blood pressure control: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(12):1230-1238. (Advisory)

11.* Gonzalez Morganti K, Bauhoff S, Blanchard JC, et al. The Evolving Role of Emergency Departments in the United States. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation; 2013. (Book)

12. Backer HD, Decker L, Ackerson L. Reproducibility of increased blood pressure during an emergency department or urgent care visit. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;41(4):507-512. (Prospective cohort; 407 patients)

13. Fleming J, Meredith C, Henry J. Detection of hypertension in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2005;22(9):636-640. (Prospective cohort; 126 patients)

14. Karras DJ, Ufberg JW, Heilpern KL, et al. Elevated blood pressure in urban emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12(9):835-843. (Prospective cohort; 1396 patients)

15. Baumann BM, Abate NL, Cowan RM, et al. Characteristics and referral of emergency department patients with elevated blood pressure. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14(9):779-784. (Prospective observational; 991 patients)

16. Dolatabadi AA, Motamedi M, Hatamabadi H, et al. Prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension in the emergency department. Trauma Mon. 2014;19(1):e7328. (Cross-sectional; 356 patients)

17. Baumann BM, Abate NL, Cowan RM, et al. Differing prevalence estimates of elevated blood pressure in ED patients using 4 methods of categorization. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26(5):561-565. (Prospective observational; 326 patients)

18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: awareness and treatment of uncontrolled hypertension among adults--United States, 2003-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:703-709. (Cross-sectional; 22,992 patients)

19. Adrogue HJ, Madias NE. Sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(19):1966-1978. (Review)

20. Dedier J, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE, et al. Nonnarcotic analgesic use and the risk of hypertension in US women. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):604-608. (Prospective cohort; 51,630 patients)

21. Dawson J, Fulton R, McInnes GT, et al. Acetaminophen use and change in blood pressure in a hypertensive population. J Hypertens. 2013;31(7):1485-1490. (Prospective cohort; 2754 patients)

22. Estruch R, Coca A, Rodicio JL. High blood pressure, alcohol and cardiovascular risk. J Hypertens. 2005;23(1):226-229. (Systematic review)

23. Levy P, Ye H, Compton S, et al. Subclinical hypertensive heart disease in black patients with elevated blood pressure in an inner-city emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;60(4):467-474. (Prospective cohort; 161 patients)

24. Peters R, Beckett N, Fagard R, et al. Increased pulse pressure linked to dementia: further results from the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial - HYVET. J Hypertens. 2013;31(9):1868- 1875. (Randomized control trial; 3845 patients)

25. Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, et al. Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(18):1291-1297. (Prospective cohort; 6589 patients)

26. Powers WJ, Clarke WR, Grubb RL Jr, et al. Lower stroke risk with lower blood pressure in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Neurology. 2014;82(12):1027-1032. (Prospective cohort; 91 patients)

27. Huang Y, Cai X, Li Y, et al. Prehypertension and the risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. Neurology. 2014. (Meta-analysis; 762,393 patients)

28. Reboldi G, Angeli F, de Simone G, et al. Tight versus standard blood pressure control in patients with hypertension with and without cardiovascular disease. Hypertension. 2014;63(3):475482. (Randomized controlled trial; 1111 patients)

29. Cienki JJ, DeLuca LA. Agreement between emergency medical services and expert blood pressure measurements. J Emerg Med. 2012;43(1):64-68. (Prospective observational; 200 patients)

30. Gilboy N, Tanabe T, Travers D, et al. Emergency severity index (ESI): a triage tool for emergency department care, version 4. Implementation handbook 2012 edition. AHRQ Publication No. 12-0014. Rockville, MD. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. November 2011. (Implementation handbook)

31. Miltner RS, Johnson KD, Deierhoi R. Exploring the frequency of blood pressure documentation in emergency departments. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2014;46(2):98-105. (Retrospective chart review; 43,232 patients)

32. Beevers G, Lip GY, O’Brien E. ABC of hypertension: blood pressure measurement. Part II-conventional sphygmomanometry: technique of auscultatory blood pressure measurement. BMJ. 2001;322(7293):1043-1047. (Review)

33. O’Brien E. Review: a century of confusion; which bladder for accurate blood pressure measurement? J Hum Hypertens. 1996;10(9):565-572. (Systematic review)

34. Myers MG, Godwin M, Dawes M, et al. Conventional versus automated measurement of blood pressure in primary care patients with systolic hypertension: randomised parallel design controlled trial. BMJ. 2011;342. (Randomized controlled trial; 252 patients)

35. Edwards C, Hiremath S, Gupta A, et al. BpTRUth: do automated blood pressure monitors outperform mercury? J Am Soc Hypertens. 2013;7(6):448-453. (Retrospective chart review; 329 patients)

36. Myers MG, Godwin M, Dawes M, et al. Conventional versus automated measurement of blood pressure in the office (CAMBO) trial. Fam Pract. 2012;29(4):376-382. (Prospective cohort; 461 patients)

37. Wong TY, Mitchell P. Hypertensive retinopathy. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(22):2310-2317. (Systematic review)

38. Bartha GW, Nugent CA. Routine chest roentgenograms and electrocardiograms. Usefulness in the hypertensive workup. Arch Intern Med. 1978;138(8):1211-1213. (Retrospective cohort; 109 patients)

39. Antikainen RL, Beckett N, Peters R, et al. Prevalence and covariates of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial. J Hypertens. 2013;31(6):1224-1232. (Randomized control trial; 2993 patients)

40. Karras DJ, Heilpern KL, Riley LJ, et al. Urine dipstick as a screening test for serum creatinine elevation in emergency department patients with severe hypertension. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(1):27-34. (Prospective cohort; 143 patients)

41. Hsieh BP, Pham MX, Froelicher VF. Prognostic value of electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy. Am Heart J. 2005;150(1):161-167. (Retrospective cohort; 19,434 patients)

42. Mahn JJ, Dubey E, Brody A, et al. Test characteristics of electrocardiography for detection of left ventricular hypertrophy in asymptomatic emergency department patients with hypertension. Acad Emerg Med. 2014;21(9):996-1002. (Prospective cohort; 161 patients)

43. Welsh P, Poulter NR, Chang CL, et al. The value of Nterminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in determining antihypertensive benefit: observations from the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT). Hypertension. 2014;63(3):507-513. (Prospective cohort; 6549 patients)

44. Uraizee I, Cheng S, Hung CL, et al. Relation of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide with diastolic function in hypertensive heart disease. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26(10):12341241. (Prospective cohort; 313 patients)

45. Mallamaci F, Leonardis D, Pizzini P, et al. Procalcitonin and the inflammatory response to salt in essential hypertension: a randomized cross-over clinical trial. J Hypertens. 2013;31(7):1424-1430. (Randomized control trial; 32 patients)

46. Fukutomi M, Hoshide S, Eguchi K, et al. Low-grade inflammation and ambulatory blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment: the ALPHABET study. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26(6):784-792. (Randomized control trial; 88 patients)

47. Daka B, Rosen T, Jansson PA, et al. Low sex hormone-binding globulin is associated with hypertension: a cross-sectional study in a Swedish population. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2013;13:30. (Randomized control trial; 2816 patients)

48. Bohan J, Fullerton L, Oakland B, et al. Hypertension in the ED: a multifaceted intervention to change provider practice. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(7):796-801. (Prospective interventional, chart review; 7 providers)

49. Tilman K, DeLashaw M, Lowe S, et al. Recognizing asymptomatic elevated blood pressure in ED patients: how good (bad) are we? Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25(3):313-317. (Retrospective chart review; 9805 patients)

50. Tanabe P, Persell SD, Adams JG, et al. Increased blood pressure in the emergency department: pain, anxiety, or undiagnosed hypertension? Ann Emerg Med. 2008;51(3):221-229. (Prospective cohort; 189 patients)

51. Freis ED AL, Armstrong ML, et al. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group. Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressures averaging 115 through 129 mm Hg. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. JAMA. 1967;202:1028-1034. (Prospective cohort; 523 patients)

52. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(21):2413-2446. (Guideline)

53. Wachter RM. Symptomatic hypotension induced by nifedipine in the acute treatment of severe hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147(3):556-558. (Case series; 3 patients)

54. Pitts SR, Adams RP. Emergency department hypertension and regression to the mean. Ann Emerg Med. 1998;31(2):214- 218. (Retrospective cohort; 195 patients)

55. Preston RA, Baltodano NM, Cienki J, et al. Clinical presentation and management of patients with uncontrolled, severe hypertension: results from a public teaching hospital. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13(4):249-255. (Retrospective chart review; 142 patients)

56. Katz JN, Gore JM, Amin A, et al. Practice patterns, outcomes, and end-organ dysfunction for patients with acute severe hypertension: the Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (STAT) registry. Am Heart J. 2009;158(4):599-606. (Prospective cohort; 1588 patients)

57. Grassi D, O’Flaherty M, Pellizzari M, et al. Hypertensive urgencies in the emergency department: evaluating blood pressure response to rest and to antihypertensive drugs with different profiles. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008;10(9):662- 667. (Randomized open-label cohort; 549 patients)

58. Kinsella K, Baraff LJ. Initiation of therapy for asymptomatic hypertension in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(6):791-792. (Review)

59. Shayne P. Against routine initiation of antihypertensive therapy in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(6):792-793. (Review)

60. Gallagher EJ. Hypertensive urgencies: treating the mercury? Ann Emerg Med. 2003;41(4):530-531. (Review)

61. Shea S, Misra D, Ehrlich MH, et al. Predisposing factors for severe, uncontrolled hypertension in an inner-city minority population. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(11):776-781. (Case control; 207 patients)

62. Collins K, Gough S, Clancy M. Screening for hypertension in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2008;25(4):196-199. (Randomized control trial; 377 patients)

63. Whelton PK, He J, Appel LJ, et al. Primary prevention of hypertension: clinical and public health advisory from the national high blood pressure education program. JAMA. 2002;288(15):1882-1888. (Consensus paper)

64. Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S76-S99. (Guideline)

65. Ziv A, Vogel O, Keret D, et al. Comprehensive Approach to Lower Blood Pressure (CALM-BP): a randomized controlled trial of a multifactorial lifestyle intervention. J Hum Hypertens. 2013;27(10):594-600. (Randomized control trial; 113 patients)

66. Rodriguez-Leyva D, Weighell W, Edel AL, et al. Potent antihypertensive action of dietary flaxseed in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2013;62(6):1081-1089. (Randomized control trial; 110 patients)

67. Mucalo I, Jovanovski E, Rahelic D, et al. Effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on arterial stiffness in subjects with type-2 diabetes and concomitant hypertension. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150(1):148-153. (Randomized control trial; 64 patients)

68. Racial/ethnic disparities in the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension - United States, 2003-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(18):351-355. (Cross-sectional; 22,922 patients)

69. Rader F, Elashoff RM, Niknezhad S, et al. Differential treatment of hypertension by primary care providers and hypertension specialists in a barber-based intervention trial to control hypertension in black men. Am J Cardiol. 2013;112(9):1421- 1426. (Randomized control trial; 105 patients)

70. Meischke H, Fahrenbruch C, Ike B, et al. Feasibility of partnering with emergency medical services to identify people at risk for uncontrolled high blood pressure. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9:7. (Survey)

71. Meischke H, Ike BR, Fahrenbruch C, et al. Hypertension identification via emergency responders: a randomized controlled intervention study. Prev Med. 2013;57(6):914-919. (Randomized control trial; 7106 patients)

72.* Nwankwo T, Yoon SS, Burt V, et al. Hypertension among adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. NCHS Data Brief. 2013;(133):1-8. (Cross-sectional; 22,992 patients)

73. Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(5):1122-1131. (Consensus recommendation)

74. Svenson JE, Repplinger M. Hypertension in the ED: still an unrecognized problem. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26(8):913-917. (Retrospective chart review; 2821 patients)

75. Chernow SM, Iserson KV, Criss E. Use of the emergency department for hypertension screening: a prospective study. Ann Emerg Med. 1987;16(2):180-182. (Prospective observational; 239 patients)

76. Slater RN, DaCruz DJ, Jarrett LN. Detection of hypertension in accident and emergency departments. Arch Emerg Med. 1987;4(1):7. (Prospective observational; 60 patients)

77. Dieterle T, Schuurmans MM, Strobel W, et al. Moderate-tosevere blood pressure elevation at ED entry: hypertension or normotension? Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23(4):474-479. (Prospective, observational; 45 patients)

78. Olivier HE, Jamero D. Implementation of a hypertension clinic using a streamlined treatment algorithm. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2012;69(8):664-667. (Review)

79. Shah T, Aronow WS, Peterson SJ, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and referral of hypertension or prehypertension in an emergency department after an educational program: preliminary results. J Clin Hypertens. 2011;13(6):413-415. (Retrospective chart review)

80. Navar-Boggan AM, Fanaroff A, Swaminathan A, et al. The impact of a measurement and feedback intervention on blood pressure control in ambulatory cardiology practice. Am Heart J. 2014;167(4):466-471. (Retrospective chart review; 600 patients)

81. Cienki JJ, Guerrera AD, Rose Steed N, et al. Impact of an electronic medical record system on emergency department discharge instructions for patients with hypertension. Postgrad Med. 2013;125(5):59-66. (Retrospective chart review; 1000 charts)

82. Alhalaiqa F, Deane KH, Gray R. Hypertensive patients’ experience with adherence therapy for enhancing medication compliance: a qualitative exploration. J Clin Nurs. 2013;22(13- 14):2039-2052. (Qualitative; 10 patients)

83. Wong MC, Liu KQ, Wang HH, et al. Effectiveness of a pharmacist-led drug counseling on enhancing antihypertensive adherence and blood pressure control: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;53(7):753-761. (Randomized control trial; 274 patients)

84. Magid DJ, Olson KL, Billups SJ, et al. A pharmacist-led, American Heart Association Heart360 Web-enabled home blood pressure monitoring program. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2013;6(2):157-163. (Randomized control trial; 348 patients)

85. Carter BL, Coffey CS, Uribe L, et al. Similar blood pressure values across racial and economic groups: baseline data from a group randomized clinical trial. J Clin Hypertens. 2013;15(6):404-412. (Randomized control trial; 1053 patients)

86. Chen Z, Ernst ME, Ardery G, et al. Physician-pharmacist co-management and 24-hour blood pressure control. J Clin Hypertens. 2013;15(5):337-343. (Randomized control trial; 198 patients)

87. Glynn LG, Murphy AW, Smith SM, et al. Interventions used to improve control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(3). Available at: Accessed June 5, 2014. (Systematic review)

88. Green BB, Anderson ML, Ralston JD, et al. Blood pressure 1 year after completion of web-based pharmacist care. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(13):1250-1252. (Randomized control trial; 618 patients)

89. Margolis KL, Asche SE, Bergdall AR, et al. Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist management on blood pressure control: a cluster randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310(1):46-56. (Randomized control trial; 450 patients)

90. Svarstad BL, Kotchen JM, Shireman TI, et al. Improving refill adherence and hypertension control in black patients: Wisconsin TEAM trial. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2013;53(5):520-529. (Randomized control trial; 576 patients)

91. Sen M, Rasjo Wraak G, Ronmark P, et al. Lack of long-term effects from a pedagogical intervention upon blood pressure control--a randomized primary care study. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2013;47(5):289-296. (Randomized control trial; 107 patients)

92. Ameling JM, Ephraim PL, Bone LR, et al. Adapting hypertension self-management interventions to enhance their sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. Fam Community Health. 2014;37(2):119-133. (Review)

93. Asayama K, Thijs L, Brguljan-Hitij J, et al. Risk stratification by self-measured home blood pressure across categories of conventional blood pressure: a participant-level meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2014;11(1):e1001591. (Meta-analysis; 5008 patients)

94. Parati G, Stergiou G, O’Brien E, et al. European Society of Hypertension practice guidelines for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. J Hypertens. 2014. (Guideline)

95. Stergiou GS, Asayama K, Thijs L, et al. Prognosis of whitecoat and masked hypertension: international database of home blood pressure in relation to cardiovascular outcome. Hypertension. 2014;63(4):675-682. (Prospective cohort; 6548 patients)

96. Ostchega Y, Berman L, Hughes JP, et al. Home blood pressure monitoring and hypertension status among US adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26(9):1086-1092. (Cross-sectional; 6001 patients)

97. Petersen LA, Simpson K, Pietz K, et al. Effects of individual physician-level and practice-level financial incentives on hypertension care: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;310(10):10421050. (Cluster randomized trial; 125 patients)

98. Barlas D, Homan CS, Rakowski J, et al. How well do patients obtain short-term follow-up after discharge from the emergency department? Ann Emerg Med. 1999;34(5):610-614. (Survey; 325 respondents)

99. Trembath CR, Hickner JM, Bishop SW. Incidental blood pressure elevations: a MIRNET project. J Fam Pract. 1991;32(4):378-381. (Prospective observational; 174 patients)

100. Pirotte MJ, Buckley BA, Lerhmann JF, et al. Development of a screening and brief intervention and referral for treatment for ED patients at risk for undiagnosed hypertension: a qualitative study. J Emerg Nurs. 2014;40(1):E1-E9. (Qualitative)

101. Agrawal Y, Gupta V. High blood pressure ER visits jumped 25 percent in 2006-11. Presented at: American Heart Association’s High Blood Pressure Research 2014 Scientific Sessions; September 9, 2014; San Francisco, CA. (Cross-sectional)

102. Irvin CB, Wyer PC, Gerson LW, et al. Preventive care in the emergency department, part II: clinical preventive services - an emergency medicine evidence-based review. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(9):1042-1054. (Systematic review)

103. Tan N, Taylor DM. Feasibility and outcomes of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in the emergency department. Emerg Med Australas. 2013;25(2):175-181. (Cross-sectional; 534 patients)

104. Lewin MR. Asymptomatically elevated blood pressure in the emergency department: a finding deserving of attention by emergency physicians? Keio J Med. 2009;58(1):19-23. (Review)

105. Frei SP, Burmeister DB, Coil JF. Frequency of serious outcomes in patients with hypertension as a chief complaint in the emergency department. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2013;113(9):664-668. (Retrospective chart review; 149 patients)

106. Gore JM, Peterson E, Amin A, et al. Predictors of 90-day readmission among patients with acute severe hypertension. The cross-sectional observational Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (STAT) study. Am Heart J. 2010;160(3):521-527. (Retrospective chart review)

107. Vlcek M, Bur A, Woisetschlager C, et al. Association between hypertensive urgencies and subsequent cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension. J Hypertens. 2008;26(4):657-662. (Prospective observational cohort; 679 patients)

108. Gualtierotti R, Zoppi A, Mugellini A, et al. Effect of naproxen and acetaminophen on blood pressure lowering by ramipril, valsartan and aliskiren in hypertensive patients. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14(14):1875-1884. (Randomized control trial; 135 patients)

109. Farah R, Makhoul N, Arraf Z, et al. Switching therapy to bedtime for uncontrolled hypertension with a nondipping pattern: a prospective randomized-controlled study. Blood Press Monit. 2013;18(4):227-231. (Randomized control trial; 200 patients)

110. Fung CS, Wong WC, Wong CK, et al. Home blood pressure monitoring--a trial on the effect of a structured education program. Aust Fam Physician. 2013;42(4):233-237. (Randomized control trial; 240 patients)

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