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<< Evidence-Based Management Of Kawasaki Disease In The Emergency Department

References

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the refe rence, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the author, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. * Kawasaki T. Acute febrile mucocutaneous syndrome with lymphoid involvement with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes in children. Arerugi. 1967;16(3):178-122. (Retrospective review; 50 patients)
  2. Shike H, Burns JC, Shimizu S. Translation of Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki’s original report of fifty patients in 1967. Pediatr Infec Dis J. 2002;21(11):993-995. (Translation of original research; 50 patients)
  3. Bayers S, Shulman ST, Paller AS. Kawasaki disease: part I. Diagnosis, clinical features, and pathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69(4):501. (Review article)
  4. Kawasaki T, Kosaki F, Okawa S, et al. A new infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MLNS) prevailing in Japan. Pediatrics. 1974;54(3):271-276. (Retrospective review, 50 patients)
  5. * Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a statement for health professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Pediatrics. 2004;114(6):1708-1733. (Consensus statement, USA)
  6. Dajani AS, Taubert KA, Gerber MA, et al. Diagnosis and therapy of Kawasaki disease in children. Circulation. 1993;87(5):1776-1780. (Review article)
  7. Chang RK. Hospitalizations for Kawasaki disease among children in the United States, 1988-1997. Pediatrics. 2002;109(6):e87. (Epidemiologic study)
  8. Eleftheriou D, Levin M, Shingadia D, et al. Management of Kawasaki disease. Arch Dis Child. 2014;99(1):74-83. (Review)
  9. Holman RC, Belay ED, Christensen KY, et al. Hospitalizations for Kawasaki syndrome among children in the United States, 1997-2007. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(6):483-488. (Epidemiologic study)
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Kawasaki Syndrome. 2013; Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/kawasaki/. Accessed July 14, 2014. (Government report)
  11. Luca NJ, Yeung RS. Epidemiology and management of Kawasaki disease. Drugs. 2012;72(8):1029-1038. (Review article)
  12. Holman RC, Shahriari A, Effler PV, et al. Kawasaki sydrome hospitalizations among children in Hawai and Connecticut. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(8):804-808. (Epidemiologic study, retrospective analysis; 175 patients)
  13. Nakamura Y, Yashiro M, Uehara R, et al. Epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease in Japan: results of the 2007-2008 nationwide survey. J Epidemiol. 2010;20(4):302-307. (Epidemiologic study; 23,337 cases)
  14. Harnden A, Mayon-White R, Perera R, et al. Kawasaki disease in England: ethnicity, deprivation, and respiratory pathogens. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(1):21-24. (Epidemiologic study; 1704 patients)
  15. Royle JA, Williams K, Elliott E, et al. Kawasaki disease in Australia, 1993-95. Arch Dis Child. 1998;78(1):33-39. (Epidemiologic study; 139 cases)
  16. Rowley AH, Shulman ST. New developments in the search for the etiologic agent of Kawasaki disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007;19(1):71-74. (Review article)
  17. Leung DY, Meissner HC, Fulton DR, et al. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-secreting Staphylococcus aureus in Kawasaki syndrome. Lancet. 1993;342(8884):1385-1388. (Prospective cohort study; 31 patients)
  18. Terai M, Miwa K, Williams T, et al. The absence of evidence of staphylococcal toxin involvement in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis. 1995;172(2):558-561. (Prospective case-control study; 48 patients)
  19. Leung DY, Meissner HC, Shulman ST, et al. Prevalence of superantigen-secreting bacteria in patients with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2002;140(6):742-746. (Prospective multicenter cohort study; 82 patients)
  20. Rowley AH, Shulman ST, Mask CA, et al. IgA plasma cell infiltration of proximal respiratory tract, pancreas, kidney, and coronary artery in acute Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis. 2000;182(4):1183-1191. (Case-control study; 28 patients)
  21. Rowley AH, Shulman ST, Spike BT, et al. Oligoclonal IgA response in the vascular wall in acute Kawasaki diease. J Immunol. 2001;166(2):1334-1343. (Histopathologic study)
  22. Esper F, Shapiro ED, Weibel C, et al. Association between a novel human coronavirus and Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis. 2005;191(4):499-502. (Case-control study; 33 patients)
  23. Ebihara T, Endo R, Ma X, et al. Lack of association between New Haven coronavirus and Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(2):351-352. (Case-control study; 227 patients)
  24. Belay ED, Erdman DD, Anderson LJ, et al. Kawasaki disease and human coronavirus. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(2):352-353. (Retrospective case-control study; 17 patients)
  25. Chang LY, Chiang BL, Kao CL, et al. Lack of association between infection with a novel human coronavirus (HCoV), HCoV-NH, and Kawasaki disease in Taiwan. J Infect Dis. 2006;193(2):283-286. (Prospective cohort study; 53 patients)
  26. Brown TJ, Crawford SE, Cornwall ML, et al. CD8 T lymphocytes and macrophages infiltrate coronary artery aneurysms in acute Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis. 2001;184(7):940-943. (Histopathologic study; 8 patients)
  27. Rowley AH, Baker SC, Shulman ST, et al. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are detected by synthetic antibody in ciliated bronchial epithelium during acute Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(10):1757-1766. (Histopathologic study)
  28. Rowley AH, Baker SC, Shulman ST, et al. Ultrastructural, immunofluorescence, and RNA evidence support the hypothesis of a “new” virus associated with Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(7):1021-1030. (Histopathologic study; 4 patients)
  29. Takeshita S, Tokutomi T, Kawase H, et al. Elevated serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in Kawasaki disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2001;125(2):340-344. (Prospective case-control study; 38 patients)
  30. Yasukawa K, Terai M, Shulman ST, et al. Systemic production of vascular endothelial growth factor and fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 receptor in acute Kawasaki disease. Circulation. 2002;105(6):766-769. (Histopathologic study)
  31. Barone SR, Pontrelli LR, Krilov LR. The differentiation of classic Kawasaki disease, atypical Kawasaki disease, and acute adenoviral infection: use of clinical features and a rapid direct fluorescent antigen test. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(5):453-456. (Retrospective case-control study; 43 patients)
  32. Uehara R, Igarashi H, Yashiro M, et al. Kawasaki disease patients with redness or crust formation at the Bacille Calmette-Guerin inoculation site. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(5):430-433. (Epidemiologic data analysis study; 15,524 patients)
  33. Lai CC, Lee PC, Wang CC, et al. Reaction at the bacillus Calmette--Guerin inoculation site in patients with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Neonatol. 2013;54(1):43-48. (Retrospective study; 145 patients)
  34. World Health Organization. BCG vaccine. WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2004;79(4):27-38. (Position paper)
  35. Wang S, Best BM, Burns JC. Periungual desquamation in patients with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(6):538-539. (Retrospective review; 243 patients)
  36. Saundankar J, Yim D, Itotoh B, et al. The epidemiology and clinical features of Kawasaki disease in Australia. Pediatrics. 2014;133(4):e1009-e1014. (Epidemiologic study; 353 cases)
  37. Dengler LD, Capparelli EV, Bastian JF, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid profile in patients with acute Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998;17(6):478-481. (Retrospective review; 46 patients)
  38. Baker AL, Lu M, Minich LL, et al. Associated symptoms in the ten days before diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2009;154(4):592-595. (Prospective study; 198 patients)
  39. Bradley DJ, Glode MP. Kawasaki disease. The mystery continues. West J Med. 1998;168(1):23-29. (Review article)
  40. Gong GW, McCrindle BW, Ching JC, et al. Arthritis presenting during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2006;148(6):800-805. (Retrospective study; 414 patients)
  41. Yun SH, Yang NR, Park SA. Associated symptoms of Kawasaki disease. Korean Circ J. 2011;41(7):394-398. (Retrospective cohort study; 121 patients)
  42. Ibanez-Alcalde M, Sanchez-Forte M, Gimenez-Sanchez F, et al. Cholestasis as the initial feature of Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31(7):766-767. (Retrospective case study; 31 patients)
  43. Kanegaye JT, Wilder MS, Molkara D, et al. Recognition of a Kawasaki disease shock syndrome. Pediatrics. 2009;123(5):e783-e789. (Prospective cohort study; 187 patients)
  44. Gatterre P, Oualha M, Dupic L, et al. Kawasaki disease: an unexpected etiology of shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2012;38(5):872-878. (Retrospective study; 11 patients)
  45. Tremoulet AH, Jain S, Chandrasekar D, et al. Evolution of laboratory values in patients with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(12):1022-1026. (Retrospective cohort study; 380 patients)
  46. Eladawy M, Dominguez SR, Anderson MS, et al. Abnormal liver panel in acute kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(2):141-144. (Retrospective review; 259 patients)
  47. Newburger JW, Burns JC, Beiser AS, et al. Altered lipid profile after Kawasaki syndrome. Circulation. 1991;84(2):625-631. (Prospective cohort study; 105 patients)
  48. Terai M, Honda T, Yasukawa K, et al. Prognostic impact of vascular leakage in acute Kawasaki disease. Circulation. 2003;108(3):325-330. (Prospective case-control study; 103 patients)
  49. Laxer RM, Petty RE. Hyponatremia in Kawasaki disease. Pediatrics. 1982;70(4):655. (Retrospective review; 11 patients)
  50. Lim GW, Lee M, Kim HS, et al. Hyponatremia and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in Kawasaki disease. Korean Circ J. 2010;40(10):507-513. (Prospective cohort study; 50 patients)
  51. Watanabe T, Abe Y, Sato S, et al. Hyponatremia in Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21(6):778-781. (Cohort study; 114 patients)
  52. Shiraishi M, Fuse S, Mori T, et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a useful diagnostic marker of acute Kawasaki disease in children. Circ J. 2013;77(8):2097-2101. (Prospective case-control study; 655 patients)
  53. McNeal-Davidson A, Fournier A, Spigelblatt L, et al. Value of amino-terminal pro B-natriuretic peptide in diagnosing Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Int. 2012;54(5):627-633. (Prospective case-control, 130 patients)
  54. Shike H, Kanegaye JT, Best BM, et al. Pyuria associated with acute Kawasaki disease and fever from other causes. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(5):440-443. (Prospective case-control study; 222 patients)
  55. Watanabe T. Kidney and urinary tract involvement in Kawasaki disease. Int J Pediatr. 2013;2013:831834. (Review article)
  56. Ichida F, Fatica NS, O’Loughlin JE, et al. Correlation of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes in Kawasaki syndrome. Am Heart J. 1988;116(3):812-819. (Retrospective cohort study; 44 patients)
  57. Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Burns JC, et al. The treatment of Kawasaki syndrome with intravenous gamma globulin. N Engl J Med. 1986;315(6):341-347. (Prospective multicenter randomized trial; 158 patients)
  58. Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Beiser AS, et al. A single intravenous infusion of gamma globulin as compared with four infusions in the treatment of acute Kawasaki syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(23):1633-1639. (Prospective multicenter randomized trial; 549 patients)
  59. Barron KS, Murphy DJ Jr, Silverman ED, et al. Treatment of Kawasaki syndrome: a comparison of two dosage regimens of intravenously administered immune globulin. J Pediatr. 1990;117(4):638-644. (Prospective multicenter trial; 44 patients)
  60. Tse SM, Silverman ED, McCrindle BW, et al. Early treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2002;140(4):450-455. (Prospective case-control study; 178 patients)
  61. Baer AZ, Rubin LG, Shapiro CA, et al. Prevalence of coronary artery lesions on the initial echocardiogram in Kawasaki syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(7):686-690. (Retrospective study; 100 patients)
  62. Newburger JW, Taubert KA, Shulman ST, et al. Summary and abstracts of the Seventh International Kawasaki Disease Symposium: December 4-7, 2001, Hakone, Japan. Pediatr Res. 2003;53(1):153-157. (Summary)
  63. Yu JJ, Jang WS, Ko HK, et al. Perivascular brightness of coronary arteries in Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2011;159(3):454457. (Prospective case-control study; 58 patients)
  64. Crystal MA, Syan SK, Yeung RS, et al. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic trends in children with acute Kawasaki disease. Can J Cardiol. 2008;24(10):776-780. (Retrospective cohort study; 176 patients)
  65. Frazier A, Hunt EA, Holmes K. Pediatric cardiac emergencies: children are not small adults. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2011;4(1):89-96. (Review)
  66. Yim D, Curtis N, Cheung M, et al. An update on Kawasaki disease II: clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013;49(8):614-623. (Review)
  67. Beiser AS, Takahashi M, Baker AL, et al. A predictive instrument for coronary artery aneurysms in Kawasaki disease. US Multicenter Kawasaki Disease Study Group. Am J Cardiol. 1998;81(9):1116-1120. (Retrospective cohort study with validation; 212 patients)
  68. Egami K, Muta H, Ishii M, et al. Prediction of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2006;149(2):237-240. (Retrospective cohort study; 320 patients)
  69. Tremoulet AH, Best BM, Song S, et al. Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in children with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2008;153(1):117-121. (Retrospective study; 362 patients)
  70. Sleeper LA, Minich LL, McCrindle BM, et al. Evaluation of Kawasaki disease risk-scoring systems for intravenous immunoglobulin resistance. J Pediatr. 2011;158(5):831-835. (Retrospective study; 198 patients)
  71. Forsey J, Mertens L. Atypical Kawasaki disease--a clinical challenge. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171(4):609-611. (Editorial comment)
  72. Sudo D, Monobe Y, Yashiro M, et al. Coronary artery lesions of incomplete Kawasaki disease: a nationwide survey in Japan. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171(4):651-656. (Epidemiologic study)
  73. Ha KS, Jang G, Lee J. Incomplete clinical manifestation as a risk factor for coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease: a meta-analysis. Eur J Pediatr. 2013;172(3):343-349. (Meta-analysis; 20 studies, 4504 patients, 32,519 controls)
  74. Manlhiot C, Christie E, McCrindle BW, et al. Complete and incomplete Kawasaki disease: two sides of the same coin. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171(4):657-662. (Retrospective review; 955 patients)
  75. Dominguez SR, Anderson MS. Advances in the treatment of Kawasaki disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013;25(1):103-109. (Review)
  76. Furusho K, Kamiya T, Nakano H, et al. High-dose intravenous gammaglobulin for Kawasaki disease. Lancet. 1984;2(8411):1055-1058. (Multicenter control trial; 85 patients)
  77. * Oates-Whitehead RM, Baumer JH, Haines L, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD004000. (Meta-analysis and review)
  78. Orbach H, Katz U, Sherer Y, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin: adverse effects and safe administration. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2005;29(3):173-184. (Review)
  79. Baumer JH, Love S, Gupta A, et al. Salicylate for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD004175. (Meta-analysis and review)
  80. Kato H, Koike S, Yokoyama T. Kawasaki disease: effect of treatment on coronary artery involvement. Pediatrics. 1979;63(2):175-179. (Prospective case-control study; 92 patients)
  81. Newburger JW, Sleeper LA, McCrindle BW, et al. Randomized trial of pulsed corticosteroid therapy for primary treatment of Kawasaki disease. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(7):663-675. (Prospective multicenter randomized trial; 199 patients)
  82. Ogata S, Ogihara Y, Honda T, et al. Corticosteroid pulse combination therapy for refractory Kawasaki disease: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2012;129(1):e17-e23. (Prospective randomized trial; 122 patients)
  83. Kobayashi T, Saji T, Otani T, et al. Efficacy of immunoglobulin plus prednisolone for prevention of coronary artery abnormalities in severe Kawasaki disease (RAISE study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial. Lancet. 2012;379(9826):1613-1620. (Prospective, multicenter randomized trial; 248 patients)
  84. Burns JC, Mason WH, Hauger SB, et al. Infliximab treatment for refractory Kawasaki syndrome. J Pediatr. 2005;146(5):662667. (Retrospective cohort study; 16 patients)
  85. Burns JC, Best BM, Mejias A, et al. Infliximab treatment of intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2008;153(6):833-838. (Prospective multicenter randomized trial; 24 patients)
  86. Williams RV, Wilke VM, Tani LY, et al. Does Abciximab enhance regression of coronary aneurysms resulting from Kawasaki disease? Pediatrics. 2002;109(1):E4. (Prospective cohort study; 15 patients)
  87. Uehara R, Yashiro M, Nakamura Y, et al. Clinical features of patients with Kawasaki disease whose parents had the same disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158 (12):1166-1169. (Retrospective cohort study; 65 patients)
  88. Hirata S, Nakamura Y, Yanagawa H. Incidence rate of recurrent Kawasaki disease and related risk factors: from the results of a nationwide surveys of Kawasaki disease in Japan. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(1):40-44. (Epidemiologic study; 10,679 patients)
  89. Dergun M, Kao A, Hauger S, et al. Familial occurance of Kawasaki syndrome in North America. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(9):876-881. (Retrospective cohort study; 42 patients)
  90. Kentsis A, Shulman A, Ahmed S, et al. Urine proteomics for discovery of improved diagnostic markers of Kawasaki disease. EMBO Mol Med. 2013;5(2):210-220. (Retrospective case-control study; 107 patients)
  91. Reindel R, Kim KY, Baker SC, et al. Periostin is upregulated in coronary arteriopathy in Kawasaki disease and is a potential diagnostic biomarker. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33(6):659661. (Case-control study; 57 patients)
  92. Yanagawa H, Nakamura Y, Yashiro M, et al. Update of the epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in Japan--from the results of 1993-94 nationwide survey. J Epidemiol. 1996;6(3):148-157. (Epidemiologic study; 11,458 cases)
  93. Belay ED, Maddox RA, Holman RC, et al. Kawasaki syndrome and risk factors for coronary artery abnormalities: United States, 1994-2003. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25(3):245249. (Epidemiologic study; 3115 patients)
  94. Bayers S, Shulman ST, Paller AS. Kawasaki disease: part II. Complications and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69(4):513.e511-e518. (Review)
  95. Fukazawa R. Long-term prognosis of Kawasaki disease: increased cardiovascular risk? Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;22(5):587-592. (Review)
  96. Daniels LB, Gordon JB, Burns JC. Kawasaki disease: late cardiovascular sequelae. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2012;27(6):572-577. (Review)
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