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<< Pediatric Envenomations: Don't Get Bitten By An Unclear Plan Of Care (Trauma CME)

References

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available.

  1. Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR, et al. 2012 Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 30th Annual Report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013;51(10):949-1229. (Government report)
  2. Vetter RS, Isbister GK. Medical aspects of spider bites. Annu Rev Entomol. 2008;53:409-429. (Review)
  3. Levine M, Canning J, Chase R, et al. Cardiomyopathy following latrodectus envenomation. West J Emerg Med. 2010;11(5):521-523. (Case report; 1 patient)
  4. Henkel AW, Sankaranarayanan S. Mechanisms of alphalatrotoxin action. Cell Tissue Res. 1999;296(2):229-233. (Review)
  5. Levine M, Ruha AM, Graeme K, et al. Toxicology in the ICU: part 3: natural toxins. Chest. 2011;140(5):1357-1370. (Review)
  6. Murphy CM, Hong JJ, Beuhler MC. Anaphylaxis with Latrodectus antivenin resulting in cardiac arrest. J Med Toxicol. 2011;7(4):317-321. (Review)
  7. Quan D, Ruha AM. Priapism associated with Latrodectus mactans envenomation. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27(6):759.e1-2. (Case report; 1 patient)
  8. Clark RF, Wethern-Kestner S, Vance MV, et al. Clinical presentation and treatment of black widow spider envenomation: a review of 163 cases. Ann Emerg Med. 1992;21(7):782- 787. (Retrospective chart review: 163 patients)
  9. Furbee RB, Kao LW, Ibrahim D. Brown recluse spider envenomation. Clin Lab Med. 2006;26(1):211-226. (Review)
  10. Peterson ME. Brown spider envenomation. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2006;21(4):191-193. (Review)
  11. Swanson DL, Vetter RS. Loxoscelism. Clin Dermatol. 2006;24(3):213-221. (Review)
  12. Rosen JL, Dumitru JK, Langley, et al. Emergency department death from systemic loxoscelism. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;60(4):439-441. (Case report; 1 patient)
  13. Tambourgi DV, Gonçalves-de-Andrade RM, van den Berg CW. Loxoscelism: from basic research to the proposal of new therapies. Toxicon. 2010;56(7):1113-1119. (Review)
  14. Hogan CJ, Barbaro KC, Winkel K. Loxoscelism: old obstacles, new directions. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;44(6):608-624. (Review)
  15. Walter FG, Bilden EF, Gibly RL. Envenomations. Crit Care Clin. 1999;15(2):353-386. (Review)
  16. West PL, McKeown NJ, Hendrickson RG. Massive hymenoptera envenomation in a 3-year old. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011;27(1):46-48. (Case report; 1 patient)
  17. Lovecchio F, Cannon RD, Algier J, et al. Bee swarmings in children. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25(8):931-933. (Prospective study; 19 patients)
  18. Vetter RS, Visscher K, Camazine S, et al. Mass envenomations by honey bees and wasps. West J Med. 1999;170(4):223- 227. (Review)
  19. Sherman RA. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees. West J Med. 1995;163(6):541-546. (Review)
  20. Banks BEC, Shipolini RA. Chemistry and pharmacology of honeybee venom. In: Piek T, ed. Venoms of the hymenoptera: biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral aspects. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 1986:329-416. (Textbook chapter)
  21. Kemp SF, deShazo RD, Moffitt JE, et al. Expanding habitat of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta): a public health concern. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;105(4):683-691. (Review)
  22. Fitzgerald KT, Flood AA. Hymenoptera stings. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2006;21(4):194-204. (Review)
  23. Rhoades RB, Stafford CT, James FK. Survey of fatal anaphylactic reactions to imported fire ant stings. Report of the Fire Ant Subcommittee of the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989;84(2):159-162. (Survey)
  24. deShazo RD, Kemp SF, deShazo MD, et al. Fire ant attacks of patients in nursing homes; an increasing problem. Am J Med. 2004;116(12):843-846. (Case reports and review; 6 patients)
  25. Lockey RF. The imported fire ant: immunopathological sig nificance. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1990;25(3):109-124. (Review)
  26. Hahn IH. Arthropods. In: Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2011:1561- 1581. (Textbook chapter)
  27. Skolnik AB, Ewald MB. Pediatric scorpion envenomations in the United States: morbidity, mortality, and therapeutic innovations. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013;29(1):98-103. (Review)
  28. Curry SC, Vance MV, Ryan PJ, et al. Envenomation by the scorpion Centuroides sculpturatus. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1983-1984;21(4-5):417-49. (Review)
  29. 29. Stahnke HL. Arizona’s lethal scorpion. Ariz Med. 1972;29(6):490-493. (Review)
  30. 30. O’Connor A, Ruha AM. Clinical course of bark scorpion envenomation managed without antivenom. J Med Toxicol. 2012;8(3):258-262. (Retrospective chart review; 88 patients)
  31. 31. World Health Organization. Venomous snakes distribution and species risk categories. Available at: http://apps.who. int/bloodproducts/snakeantivenoms/database. Accessed June 3, 2014. (Government report)
  32. 32. Cruz LS, Vargas R, Lopes AA. Snakebite envenomation and death in the developing world. Ethn Dis. 2009;19(1 Suppl 1):S1-42-46. (Review)
  33. 33. Lavonas EJ, Ruha AM, Banner W, et al. Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop. BMC Emerg Med. 2011;11:2. (Database review and consensus statement)
  34. Cetaruk EW. Rattlesnakes and other crotalids. In: Critical Care Toxicology: Diagnosis And Management Of The Critically Poisoned Patient. Philadelphia: Elsevier-Mosby; 2005:1075- 1090. (Textbook chapter)
  35. Ownby CL, Bjarnason J, Tu AT. Hemorrhagic toxins from rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom. Pathogenesis of hemorrhage induced by three purified toxins. Am J Pathol. 1978;93(1):201-218. (Animal study)
  36. Tanen DA, Ruha AM, Graeme KA, et al. Rattlesnake envenomations: unusual case presentations. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(3):474-479. (Case series; 4 patients)
  37.  Kitchens CS, Van Mierop LH. Envenomation by the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius fulvius). A study of 39 victims. JAMA. 1987;258(12):1615-1618. (Retrospective chart review; 39 patients)
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