<< Emergency Department Management Of Calcium-Channel Blocker, Beta Blocker, And Digoxin Toxicity


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  2. U.S. Bureau of the Census. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2010 Emergency Department Summary Tables. Durham, NC: U.S. Bureau of the Census; 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ahcd/ nhamcs_emergency/2010_ed_web_tables.pdf. Accessed October 15, 2013. (Census data report)
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  52. Raja Rao MP, Panduranga P, Sulaiman K, et al. Digoxin toxicity with normal digoxin and serum potassium levels: beware of magnesium, the hidden malefactor. J Emerg Med. 2013;45(2):e31-e34. (Case report; 1 patient)
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Wesley Palatnick, MD, FRCPC; Tomislav Jelic, MD

Publication Date

February 2, 2014

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