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<< Emergency Department Management Of Calcium-Channel Blocker, Beta Blocker, And Digoxin Toxicity

Pathophysiology And Pharmacokinetics

Initially developed in the 1960s, calcium-channel blockers are still used widely today in the treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and angina pectoris. These agents are the number one cause of fatal cardiovascular medication exposures.3 The availability of sustained-release formulations of these drugs has increased the morbidity and mortality of overdoses.

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