<< Emergency Department Management Of Calcium-Channel Blocker, Beta Blocker, And Digoxin Toxicity


The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing, due to the aging population,1 with cardiovascular medications (especially calcium-channel blockers and beta blockers) now some of the most prescribed therapeutic agents on the market.2 As a result of the growing use and availability of cardiovascular medications, there has been a rise in the number of toxic exposures. The 2011 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers found that cardiovascular medications accounted for 102,766 exposures (3.74% of all exposures reported) and nearly 11% of fatalities.

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