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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. * Dartnell J, Ramachandran M, Katchburian M. Haematogenous acute and subacute paediatric osteomyelitis: a systematic review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012;94(5):584-595. (Systematic review; > 12,000 patients)
  2. Hatzenbuehler J, Pulling TJ. Diagnosis and management of osteomyelitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(9):1027-1033. (Review article)
  3. Conrad DA. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Pediatr Rev. 2010;31(11):464-471. (Review article)
  4. Auh JS, Binns HJ, Katz BZ. Retrospective assessment of subacute or chronic osteomyelitis in children and young adults. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2004;43(6):549-555. (Retrospective; 52 patients)
  5. Gillespie WJ. The epidemiology of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis of childhood. Int J Epidemiol. 1985;14(4):600-606. (Retrospective; 38,166 patients)
  6. * Riise OR, Kirkhus E, Handeland KS, et al. Childhood osteomyelitis- incidence and differentiation from other acute onset musculoskeletal features in a population-based study. BMC Pediatr. 2008;8:45. (Prospective multicenter; 429 patients)
  7. Blyth MJ, Kincaid R, Craigen MA, et al. The changing epidemiology of acute and subacute haematogenous osteomyelitis in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001;83(1):99-102. (Retrospective; 50 patients)
  8. Malcius D, Trumpulyte G, Barauskas V, et al. Two decades of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children: are there any changes? Pediatr Surg Int. 2005;21(5):356-359. (Retrospective; 758 patients)
  9. Klein JD, Leach KA. Pediatric pelvic osteomyelitis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007;46(9):787-790. (Retrospective; 31 patients)
  10. Wong WY. Prevention and management of infection in children with sickle cell anaemia. Paediatr Drugs. 2001;3(11):793- 801. (Review article)
  11. Akakpo-Numado GK, Gnassingbe K, Abalo A, et al. Locations of osteomyelitis in children with sickle-cell disease at Tokoin teaching hospital (Togo). Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25(8):723-726. (Retrospective; 43 patients)
  12. Burnett MW, Bass JW, Cook BA. Etiology of osteomyelitis complicating sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 1998;101(2):296- 297. (Systematic review; 205 patients)
  13. Copley LA, Kinsler MA, Gheen T, et al. The impact of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines applied by a multidisciplinary team for the care of children with osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95(8):686-693. (Retrospective; 271 patients)
  14. Marti-Carvajal AJ, Agreda-Perez LH, Cortes-Jofre M. Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009(2):Cd007175. (Cochrane review)
  15. Osmon DR, Berbari EF, Berendt AR, et al. Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(1):e1-e25. (Infectious Diseases Society of America practice guideline)
  16. Gutierrez K. Bone and joint infections in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005;52(3):779-794. (Review article)
  17. * Lew DP, Waldvogel FA. Osteomyelitis. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(14):999-1007. (Review article)
  18. Gonzalez BE, Martinez-Aguilar G, Hulten KG, et al. Severe staphylococcal sepsis in adolescents in the era of community- acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Pediatrics. 2005;115(3):642-648. (Prospective; 14 patients)
  19. Saavedra-Lozano J, Mejias A, Ahmad N, et al. Changing trends in acute osteomyelitis in children: impact of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008;28(5):569-575. (Retrospective; 290 patients)
  20. Dodwell ER. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children: current concepts. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013;25(1):58-63. (Review article)
  21. Dohin B, Gillet Y, Kohler R, et al. Pediatric bone and joint infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(11):1042- 1048. (Retrospective and prospective case control; 31 patients)
  22. Ceroni D, Cherkaoui A, Ferey S, et al. Kingella kingae osteoarticular infections in young children: clinical features and contribution of a new specific real-time PCR assay to the diagnosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010;30(3):301-304. (Prospective; 123 patients)
  23. Howard AW, Viskontas D, Sabbagh C. Reduction in osteomyelitis and septic arthritis related to Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccination. J Pediatr Orthop. 1999;19(6):705-709. (Retrospective cohort study)
  24. Homans JD, Spencer L. Itraconazole treatment of nonmeningeal coccidioidomycosis in children: two case reports and review of the literature. Pediatr Infec Dis J. 2010;29(1):65-67. (Case report; 2 patients)
  25. Vohra R, Kang HS, Dogra S, et al. Tuberculous osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997;79(4):562-566. (Retrospective; 25 patients)
  26. Kim SH, Kim SY, Eun BW, et al. BCG osteomyelitis caused by the BCG Tokyo strain and confirmed by molecular method. Vaccine. 2008;26(34):4379-4381. (Case report; 2 patients)
  27. Ali S, Drendel AL, Kircher J, et al. Pain management of musculoskeletal injuries in children: current state and future directions. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010;26(7):518-524. (Review article)
  28. Kaplan SL. Osteomyelitis in children. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005;19(4):787-797. (Review article)
  29. Goergens ED, McEvoy A, Watson M, et al. Acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005;41(1-2):59-62. (Retrospective; 102 patients)
  30. Karwowska A, Davies HD, Jadavji T. Epidemiology and outcome of osteomyelitis in the era of sequential intravenous- oral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998;17(11):1021-1026. (Retrospective; 146 patients)
  31. Scott RJ, Christofersen MR, Robertson WW, Jr., et al. Acute osteomyelitis in children: a review of 116 cases. J Pediatr Orthop. 1990;10(5):649-652. (Retrospective; 116 patients)
  32. Zvulunov A, Gal N, Segev Z. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the pelvis in childhood: Diagnostic clues and pitfalls. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2003;19(1):29-31. (Systematic review; 146 patients)
  33. Sreenivas T, Nataraj AR, Menon J, et al. Acute multifocal haematogenous osteomyelitis in children. J Child Orthop. 2011;5(3):231-235. (Retrospective; 26 patients)
  34. Morrissy RT, Haynes DW. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: a model with trauma as an etiology. J Pediatr Orthop. 1989;9(4):447-456. (Animal study)
  35. Kabak S, Tuncel M, Halici M, et al. Role of trauma on acute haematogenic osteomyelitis aetiology. Eur J Emerg Med. 1999;6(3):219-222. (Animal study)
  36. Taylor MN, Chaudhuri R, Davis J, et al. Childhood osteomyelitis presenting as a pathological fracture. Clin Radiol. 2008;63(3):348-351. (Case report; 1 patient)
  37. Perlman MH, Patzakis MJ, Kumar PJ, et al. The incidence of joint involvement with adjacent osteomyelitis in pediatric patients. J Pediatr Orthop. 2000;20(1):40-43. (Retrospective; 66 patients)
  38. Bouchoucha S, Benghachame F, Trifa M, et al. Deep venous thrombosis associated with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2010;96(8):890-893. (Prospective; 70 patients)
  39. Mantadakis E, Plessa E, Vouloumanou EK, et al. Deep venous thrombosis in children with musculoskeletal infections: the clinical evidence. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16(4):e236-243. (Systematic review; 93 patients)
  40. Schaub RL, Rodkey ML. Deep vein thrombosis and septic pulmonary emboli with MRSA osteomyelitis in a pediatric patient. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(9):911-912. (Case report; 1 patient)
  41. Unkila-Kallio L, Kallio MJ, Eskola J, et al. Serum C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood cell count in acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of children. Pediatrics. 1994;93(1):59-62. (Prospective; 44 patients)
  42. Browne LP, Mason EO, Kaplan SL, et al. Optimal imaging strategy for community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus musculoskeletal infections in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38(8):841-847. (Retrospective; 199 patients)
  43. Connolly SA, Connolly LP, Drubach LA, et al. MRI for detection of abscess in acute osteomyelitis of the pelvis in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189(4):867-872. (Retrospective; 38 patients)
  44. Arnold JC, Cannavino CR, Ross MK, et al. Acute bacterial osteoarticular infections: eight-year analysis of C-reactive protein for oral step-down therapy. Pediatrics. 2012;130(4):e821- 828. (Retrospective; 194 patients)
  45. * Malcius D, Jonkus M, Kuprionis G, et al. The accuracy of different imaging techniques in diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Medicina (Kaunas). 2009;45(8):624-631. (Prospective; 183 patients)
  46. Schmit P, Glorion C. Osteomyelitis in infants and children. Eur Radiol. 2004;14 Suppl 4:L44-L54. (Review article)
  47. Kaiser S, Rosenborg M. Early detection of subperiosteal abscesses by ultrasonography. A means for further successful treatment in pediatric osteomyelitis. Pediatr Radiol. 1994;24(5):336-339. (Prospective; 32 patients)
  48. Kaiser S, Jorulf H, Hirsch G. Clinical value of imaging techniques in childhood osteomyelitis. Acta Radiol. 1998;39(5):523-531. (Prospective; 65 patients)
  49. * Connolly LP, Connolly SA, Drubach LA, et al. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of children: assessment of skeletal scintigraphy-based diagnosis in the era of MRI. J Nucl Med. 2002;43(10):1310-1316. (Retrospective; 213 patients)
  50. Rifai A, Nyman R. Scintigraphy and ultrasonography in differentiating osteomyelitis from bone infarction in sickle cell disease. Acta Radiol. 1997;38(1):139-143. (Case report; 2 patients [1 adult, 1 pediatric])
  51. Mazur JM, Ross G, Cummings J, et al. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of acute musculoskeletal infections in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 1995;15(2):144- 147. (Prospective; 43 patients)
  52. Pääkkönen M, Peltola H. Bone and joint infections. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60(2):425-436. (Review article)
  53. Guillerman RP. Osteomyelitis and beyond. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43Suppl 1:S193-S203. (Review article)
  54. Chamroonrat W, Zhuang H. Early acute hematogenous osteomyelitis detected by bone scintigraphy but not MRI. Clin Nucl Med. 2013;38(4):285-288. (Case report; 1 patient)
  55. Bonhoeffer J, Haeberle B, Schaad UB, et al. Diagnosis of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis and septic arthritis: 20 years experience at the University Children’s Hospital Basel. Swiss Med Wkly. 2001;131(39-40):575-581. (Retrospective; 90 patients)
  56. Lazzarini L, Lipsky BA, Mader JT. Antibiotic treatment of osteomyelitis: what have we learned from 30 years of clinical trials? Int J Infect Dis. 2005;9(3):127-138. (Systematic review; 483 pediatric patients)
  57. * Peltola H, Pääkkönen M, Kallio P, et al. Clindamycin vs. firstgeneration cephalosporins for acute osteoarticular infections of childhood--a prospective quasi-randomized controlled trial. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18(6):582-589. (Quasi-randomized controlled trial; 252 patients)
  58. Jaberi FM, Shahcheraghi GH, Ahadzadeh M. Short-term intravenous antibiotic treatment of acute hematogenous bone and joint infection in children: a prospective randomized trial. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002;22(3):317-320. (Prospective randomized; 33 patients)
  59. Kaplan SL, Mason EO, Jr., Feigin RD. Clindamycin versus nafcillin or methicillin in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in children. South Med J. 1982;75(2):138- 142. (Prospective randomized; 25 patients)
  60. * Conway PH, Yau C, Vossmeyer M, et al. Treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO). Best Evidence Statement (BESt). Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. 2011. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content. aspx?id=33278. Accessed September 10, 2013. (Clinical protocol)
  61. Le Saux N, Howard A, Barrowman NJ, et al. Shorter courses of parenteral antibiotic therapy do not appear to influence response rates for children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis. 2002;Aug 14;2:16. (Systematic review; 230 patients)
  62. Peltola H, Pääkkönen M, Kallio P, et al. Short- versus longterm antimicrobial treatment for acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of childhood: prospective, randomized trial on 131 culture-positive cases. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(12):1123- 1128. (Prospective randomized; 131 patients)
  63. Peltola H, Unkila-Kallio L, Kallio MJ. Simplified treatment of acute staphylococcal osteomyelitis of childhood. The Finnish Study Group. Pediatrics. 1997;99(6):846-850. (Prospective randomized; 50 patients)
  64. Tetzlaff TR, McCracken GH, Jr., Nelson JD. Oral antibiotic therapy for skeletal infections of children. II. Therapy of osteomyelitis and suppurative arthritis. J Pediatr. 1978;92(3):485-490. (Prospective; 22 patients)
  65. Bachur R, Pagon Z. Success of short-course parenteral antibiotic therapy for acute osteomyelitis of childhood. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007;46(1):30-35. (Retrospective; 29 patients)
  66. Ceroni D, Regusci M, Pazos JM, et al. Risks and complications of prolonged parenteral antibiotic treatment in children with acute osteoarticular infections. Acta Orthop Belg. 2003;69(5):400-404. (Retrospective; 60 patients)
  67. Le J, San Agustin M, Hernandez EA, et al. Complications associated with outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila), 2010;49(11):1038-1043. (Retrospective; 98 patients)
  68. Breda L, de Michele G, Nozzi M, et al. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial osteomyelitis: an unusual cause of hip pain in immunocompetent children. Rheumatol Int. 2009;29(12):1487- 1489. (Case report; 1 patient)
  69. Ruebner R, Keren R, Coffin S, et al. Complications of central venous catheters used for the treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Pediatrics. 2006;117(4):1210-1215. (Retrospective; 80 patients)
  70. Vinod MB, Matussek J, Curtis N, et al. Duration of antibiotics in children with osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002;38(4):363-367. (Retrospective; 32 patients)
  71. Zaoutis T, Localio AR, Leckerman K, et al. Prolonged intravenous therapy versus early transition to oral antimicrobial therapy for acute osteomyelitis in children. Pediatrics. 2009;123(2):636-642. (Retrospective; 1969 patients)
  72. Lewis JS 2nd, Jorgensen JH. Inducible clindamycin resistance in staphylococci: should clinicians and microbiologists be concerned? Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(2):280-285. (Review article)
  73. Kohli R, Hadley S. Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005;19(4):831-851. (Review article)
  74. Gathe JC Jr., Harris RL, Garland B, et al. Candida osteomyelitis. Report of five cases and review of the literature. Am J Med. 1987;82(5):927-937. (Case report; 5 patients)
  75. Lasday SD, Jay RM. Candida osteomyelitis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 1994;33(2):173-176. (Case report; 1 patient)
  76. Basu S, Kumar A. Osteomyelitis as a manifestation of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Infect. 2011;63(2):163-166. (Case report; 1 patient)
  77. Arias F, Mata-Essayag S, Landaeta ME, et al. Candida albicans osteomyelitis: case report and literature review. Int J Infect Dis. 2004;8(5):307-314. (Systematic review and case report; 111 patients)
  78. Friedman BC, Simon GL. Candida vertebral osteomyelitis: report of three cases and a review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1987;8(1):31-36. (Systematic review and 3 case reports; 17 patients)
  79. Jirapongsananuruk O, Luangwedchakarn V, Niemela JE, et al. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis in a child with a novel compound mutation of the IL12RB1 gene. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2012;30(1):79-82. (Case report; 1 patient)
  80. Ceroni D, Dubois-Ferriere V, Cherkaoui A, et al. Detection of Kingella kingae osteoarticular infections in children by oropharyngeal swab PCR. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):e230-e235. (Prospective; 123 patients)
  81. Chometon S, Benito Y, Chaker M, et al. Specific real-time polymerase chain reaction places Kingella kingae as the most common cause of osteoarticular infections in young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(5):377-381. (Prospective; 131 patients)
  82. Kiang KM, Ogunmodede F, Juni BA, et al. Outbreak of osteomyelitis/ septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae among child care center attendees. Pediatrics. 2005;116(2):e206-213. (Retrospective; 122 patients)
  83. Yagupsky P. Kingella kingae: from medical rarity to an emerging paediatric pathogen. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4(6):358-367. (Review article)
  84. Yagupsky P. Antibiotic susceptibility of Kingella kingae isolates from children with skeletal system infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31(2):212. (Retrospective; 85 patients)

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