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<< Pediatric Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: An Evidence-Based Approach To Treatment

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study will be included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the author, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Chayavichitsilp P BJ, Krakowski AC, Friedlander SF. Herpes simplex. Peds Rev. 2009;30(4):119-130. (Review)
  2. Fatahzadeh M, Schwartz RA. Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57(5):737-763. (Review)
  3. * Brown ZA, Wald A, Morrow RA, et al. Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant. JAMA. 2003;289(2):203- 209. (Prospective; 58,362 patients)
  4. Kimberlin DW, Rouse DJ. Clinical practice. Genital herpes. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(19):1970-1977. (Review)
  5. Whitley R, Kimberlin, DW. Herpes simplex encephalitis: children and adolescents. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2005;16(1):17- 23. (Review)
  6. Schillinger JA, McKinney CM, Garg R, et al. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 and characteristics associated with undiagnosed infection: New York City, 2004. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(6):599-606. (Cross-sectional survey; 1999 patients)
  7. Smith JS, Robinson NJ. Age-specific prevalence of infection with herpes simplex virus types 2 and 1: a global review. J Infect Dis. 2002;15(186):S3-28. (Review)
  8. Xu F, Sternberg MR, Kottiri BJ, et al. Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States. JAMA. 2006;296(8):964-973. (Cross-sectional survey; 11,508 patients)
  9. Fleming DT, McQuillan GM, Johnson RE, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(16):1105-1111. (Retrospective; 68,000 patients)
  10. Armstrong GL, Schillinger J, Markowitz L, et al. Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(9):912-920. (Cross-sectional survey; 16,691 patients)
  11. Johnson RE, Nahmias AJ, Magder LS, et al. A seroepidemiologic survey of the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1989;321(1):7-12. (Retrospective; 4201 patients)
  12. Nahmias AJ, Lee FK, Beckman-Nahmias S. Sero-epidemiological and -sociological patterns of herpes simplex virus infection in the world. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1990;69:19-36. (Retrospective; 40,000 patients)
  13. Ribes JA, Steele, AD, Seabolt, JP, et al. Six-year study of the incidence of herpes in genital and nongenital cultures in a central Kentucky medical center patient population. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39(9):3321-3325. (Retrospective; 4595 patients)
  14. Scoular AL, Leask BG, Carrington D. Changing trends in genital herpes due to herpes simplex virus type 1 in Glasgow, 1985-88. Genitourin Med. 1990;66(3):226. (Letter to the editor)
  15. Nilsen A, Myrmel, H. Changing trends in genital herpes simplex virus infection in Bergen, Norway. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000;79(8):693-696. (Retrospective; 1023 patients)
  16. Tayal SCP, R.S High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in female anogenital herpes simplex in Newcastle upon Tyne 1983-92. Int J STD AIDS. 1994;5(5):359-361. (Retrospective; 1135 patients)
  17. Roberts CM, Pfister JR, Spear SJ. Increasing proportion of herpes simplex virus type 1 as a cause of genital herpes infection in college students. Sex Transm Dis. 2003;30(10):797- 800. (Retrospective; 499 patients)
  18. Schillinger JA, Xu F, Sternberg MR, et al. National seroprevalence and trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 in the United States, 1976-1994. Sex Transm Dis. 2004;31(12):753-760. (Cross-sectional survey; 27,801 patients)
  19. Anderson WE. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. 2013; Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1165183-overview. Accessed August 2, 2013. (Review)
  20. Whitley RJ, Soong SJ, Linneman C, Jr, et al. Herpes simplex encephalitis. Clinical assessment. JAMA. 1982;247(3):317-320. (Review)
  21. James SH, Whitley RJ. Treatment of herpes simplex virus infections in pediatric patients: current status and future needs. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;88(5):720-724. (Review)
  22. Whitley R. Herpes simplex encephalitis: adolescents and adults. Antiviral Res. 2006;71(2-3):141-148. (Review)
  23. Whitley R, Davis EA, Suppapanya N. Incidence of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in a managed-care population. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(9):704-708. (Retrospective; 566 patients)
  24. Marquez L, Levy ML, Munoz FM, et al. A report of three cases and review of intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(2):153-157. (Retrospective; 64 patients)
  25. Whitley R, Arvin A, Prober C, et al. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in neonates with herpes simplex virus infections. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(7):450-454. (Prospective; 202 patients)
  26. Whitley R, Arvin A, Prober C, et al. A controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(7):444-449. (Prospective; 202 patients)
  27. Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, et al. Natural history of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in the acyclovir era. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):223-229. (Prospective; 186 patients)
  28. Whitley RJ, Nahmias AJ, Visintine AM, et al. The natural history of herpes simplex virus infection of mother and newborn. Pediatrics. 1980;66(4):489-494. (Retrospective; 56 patients)
  29. Whitley RJ, Corey L, Arvin A, et al. Changing presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in neonates. J Infect Dis. 1988;158(1):109-116. (Retrospective; 291 patients)
  30. * Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, et al. Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):230-238. (Prospective and retrospective; 195 patients)
  31. Whitley RJ, Nahmias AJ, Soong SJ, et al. Vidarabine therapy of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Pediatrics. 1980;66(4):495-501. (Prospective; 56 patients)
  32. Kimberlin D. Herpes simplex virus, meningitis and encephalitis in neonates. Herpes. 2004;11 Suppl 2:65A-76A. (Review)
  33. Zitelli BJ, Davis HW. Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Inc; 2002:396-454. (Textbook)
  34. Kimberlin DW. Herpes simplex virus infections of the newborn. Semin Perinatol. 2007;31(1):19-25. (Review)
  35. * Kimberlin DW, Baley J. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions. Pediatrics. 2013;131(2):383-386. (Clinical practice guidelines)
  36. * Brown ZA, Benedetti J, Ashley R, et al. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in relation to asymptomatic maternal infection at the time of labor. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(18):1247- 1252. (Prospective; 15,923 patients)
  37. Brown ZA, Vontver LA, Benedetti J, et al. Effects on infants of a first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1987;317(20):1246-1251. (Prospective; 29 patients)
  38. Prober CG, Sullender WM, Yasukawa LL, et al. Low risk of herpes simplex virus infections in neonates exposed to the virus at the time of vaginal delivery to mothers with recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infections. N Engl J Med. 1987;316(5):240-244. (Retrospective; 34 patients)
  39. Yeager AS, Arvin AM, Urbani LJ, et al. Relationship of antibody to outcome in neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Infect Immun. 1980;29(2):532-538. (Prospective; 166 patients)
  40. Kaye EM, Dooling EC. Neonatal herpes simplex meningoencephalitis associated with fetal monitor scalp electrodes. Neurology. 1981;31(8):1045-1047. (Retrospective; 2 patients)
  41. Parvey LS, Ch’ien LT. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection introduced by fetal-monitor scalp electrodes. Pediatrics. 1980;65(6):1150-1153. (Retrospective; 1 patient)
  42. * ACOG practice bulletin. Management of herpes in pregnancy. Number 8 October 1999. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000;68(2):165- 173. (Clinical practice guidelines)
  43. Randolph AG, Hartshorn RM, Washington AE. Acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy to prevent neonatal herpes: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88(4 Pt 1):603-610. (Cost-effectiveness analysis)
  44. Brocklehurst P, Kinghorn G, Carney O, et al. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of suppressive acyclovir in late pregnancy in women with recurrent genital herpes infection. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105(3):275-280. (Prospective; 63 patients)
  45. Braig S, Luton D, Sibony O, et al. Acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy prevents recurrent genital herpes and viral shedding. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001;96(1):55-58. (Prospective; 288 patients)
  46. * Hollier LM, Wendel GD. Third trimester antiviral prophylaxis for preventing maternal genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) recurrences and neonatal infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;23(1). (Meta-analysis; 7 trials, 1249 patients)
  47. Scott LL, Hollier LM, McIntire D, et al. Acyclovir suppression to prevent recurrent genital herpes at delivery. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2002;10(2):71-77. (Prospective; 234 patients)
  48. Scott LL, Hollier LM, McIntire D, et al. Acyclovir suppression to prevent clinical recurrences at delivery after first episode genital herpes in pregnancy: an open-label trial. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2001;9(2):75-80. (Prospective; 96 patients)
  49. Scott LL, Sanchez PJ, Jackson GL, et al. Acyclovir suppression to prevent cesarean delivery after first-episode genital herpes. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87(1):69-73. (Prospective; 46 patients)
  50. * Watts DH, Brown ZA, Money D, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acyclovir in late pregnancy for the reduction of herpes simplex virus shedding and cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188(3):836- 843. (Prospective; 162 patients)
  51. * Sheffield JS, Hill JB, Hollier LM, et al. Valacyclovir prophylaxis to prevent recurrent herpes at delivery: a randomized clinical trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108(1):141-147. (Prospective; 350 patients)
  52. Pinninti SG, Angara R, Feja KN, et al. Neonatal herpes disease following maternal antenatal antiviral suppressive therapy: a multicenter case series. J Pediatr. 2012;161(1):134- 138. (Case series; 8 patients)
  53. Baldwin S, Whitley RJ. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. Teratology. 1989;39(1):1-10. (Review)
  54. Johansson AB, Rassart A, Blum D, et al. Lower-limb hypoplasia due to intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus type 2: possible confusion with intrauterine varicella-zoster syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(7):e57-e62. (Retrospective; 1 patient)
  55. Arvin AM, Yeager AS, Bruhn FW, et al. Neonatal herpes simplex infection in the absence of mucocutaneous lesions. J Pediatr. 1982;100(5):715-721. (Retrospective; 20 patients)
  56. Corey L, Adams HG, Brown ZA, et al. Genital herpes simplex virus infections: clinical manifestations, course, and complications. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98(6):958-972. (Review)
  57. Glass N, Nelson HD, Huffman, L. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for genital herpes: recommendation statement. Am Fam Phys. 2005;72(8):1557-1561. (Recommendation statement)
  58. Pickering L, Baker C, Kimberlin D. Herpes Simplex. American Academy of Pediatrics. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Pickering LK, ed. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2012:398-408. (Report)
  59. Singh A, Preiksaitis J, Ferenczy A, et al. The laboratory diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2005;16(2):92-98. (Review)
  60. Ashley RL, Wald A, Eagleton M. Premarket evaluation of the POCkit HSV-2 type-specific serologic test in culturedocumented cases of genital herpes simplex virus type 2. Sex Transm Dis. 2000;27(5):266-269. (Prospective; 303 patients)
  61. Ashley RL, Eagleton M. Evaluation of a novel point of care test for antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2. Sex Transm Infect. 1998;74(3):228-229. (Review)
  62. Leach CT, Ashley RL, Baillargeon J, et al. Performance of two commercial glycoprotein G-based enzyme immunoassays for detecting antibodies to herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 in children and young adolescents. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;9(5):1124-1125. (Retrospective; 61 patients)
  63. Ashley RL. Performance and use of HSV type-specific serology test kits. Herpes. 2002;9(1):38-45. (Review)
  64. Scoular A. Using the evidence base on genital herpes: optimising the use of diagnostic tests and information provision. Sex Transm Infect. 2002;78(3):160-165. (Review)
  65. Irani DN, Greenberg BM. Cerebrospinal Fluid in Clinical Practice. 1st ed. Philadelphia PA: Saunders; 2009:177-190. (Review)
  66. Kimberlin DW, Lakeman FD, Arvin AM, et al. Application of the polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus disease. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1996;174(6):1162-1167. (Retrospective; 77 patients)
  67. Troendle-Atkins J, Demmler GJ, Buffone GJ. Rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis by using the polymerase chain reaction. J Pediatr. 1993;123(3):376-380. (Prospective; 124 patients)
  68. Kimura H, Futamura M, Kito H, et al. Detection of viral DNA in neonatal herpes simplex virus infections: frequent and prolonged presence in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. J Infect Dis. 1991;164(2):289-293. (Prospective; 7 patients)
  69. Lakeman FD, Whitley RJ. Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis: application of polymerase chain reaction to cerebrospinal fluid from brain-biopsied patients and correlation with disease. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1995;171(4):857-863. (Retrospective; 101 patients)
  70. Atkins JT. HSV PCR for CNS infections: pearls and pitfalls. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999;18(9):823-824. (Review)
  71. Ozcan A, Senol M, Saglam H, et al. Comparison of the Tzanck test and polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus infections. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46(11):1177-1179. (Retrospective; 98 patients)
  72. Caviness AC, Oelze LL, Saz UE, et al. Direct immunofluorescence assay compared to cell culture for the diagnosis of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in children. J Clin Virol. 2010;49(1):58-60. (Retrospective; 659 patients)
  73. Mook-Kanamori B, van de Beek D, Wijdicks EF. Herpes simplex encephalitis with normal initial cerebrospinal fluid examination. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(8):1514-1515. (Retrospective; 1 patient)
  74. Hanson KE, Alexander BD, Woods C, et al. Validation of laboratory screening criteria for herpes simplex virus testing of cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45(3):721- 724. (Retrospective; 1458 patients)
  75. * Caviness AC, Demmler GJ, Almendarez Y, et al. The prevalence of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection compared with serious bacterial illness in hospitalized neonates. J Pediatr. 2008;153(2):164-169. (Retrospective; 5817 patients)
  76. Fidler KJ, Pierce CM, Cubitt WD, et al. Could neonatal disseminated herpes simplex virus infections be treated earlier? J Infect. 2004;49(2):141-146. (Retrospective; 8 patients)
  77. Caviness AC, Demmler GJ, Selwyn BJ. Clinical and laboratory features of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: a case-control study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27(5):425-430. (Case-control; 200 patients)
  78. Tunkel AR, Glaser CA, Bloch KC, et al. The management of encephalitis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(3):303- 327. (Clinical practice guidelines)
  79. Gasecki AP, Steg RE. Correlation of early MRI with CT scan, EEG, and CSF: analyses in a case of biopsy-proven herpes simplex encephalitis. Eur Neurol. 1991;31(6):372-375. (Case study; 1 patient)
  80. Go RT, Yousef MM, Jacoby CG. The role of radionuclide brain imaging and computerized tomography in the early diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. J Comput Tomogr. 1979;3(4):286-296. (Retrospective; 12 patients)
  81. Goldstein MA, Harden CL. Herpes encephalitis. Available at http://professionals.epilepsy.com/page/viral_herp_enceph. html. Accessed August 7, 2013. (Review)
  82. Toth C, Harder S, Yager J. Neonatal herpes encephalitis: a case series and review of clinical presentation. Can J Neurol Sci. 2003;30(1):36-40. (Case series; 9 patients)
  83. Whitley RJ, Alford CA, Hirsch MS, et al. Vidarabine versus acyclovir therapy in herpes simplex encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 1986;314(3):144-149. (Prospective; 208 patients)
  84. Englund JA FC, Balfour HH. Acyclovir therapy in neonates. J Pediatr. 1991(119):129-135. (Prospective; 16 patients)
  85. Long SS. In defense of empiric acyclovir therapy in certain neonates. J Pediatr. 2008;153(2):157-158. (Editorial)
  86. Annunziato PW, Gershon A. Herpes simplex virus infections. Pediatr Rev. 1996;17(12):415-423. (Review)
  87. Shah SS, Aronson PL, Mohamad Z, et al. Delayed acyclovir therapy and death among neonates with herpes simplex virus infection. Pediatrics. 2011;128(6):1153-1160. (Retrospective; 1086 patients)
  88. Long SS, Pool TE, Vodzak J, et al. Herpes simplex virus infection in young infants during 2 decades of empiric acyclovir therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(7):556-561. (Retrospective; 32 patients)
  89. Kimberlin DW, Whitley RJ, Wan W, et al. Oral acyclovir suppression and neurodevelopment after neonatal herpes. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(14):1284-1292. (Prospective; 74 patients)
  90. Kimberlin D, Powell D, Gruber W, et al. Administration of oral acyclovir suppressive therapy after neonatal herpes simplex virus disease limited to the skin, eyes and mouth: results of a phase I/II trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996;15(3):247- 254. (Prospective; 26 patients)
  91. Rudd C, Rivadeneira ED, Gutman LT. Dosing considerations for oral acyclovir following neonatal herpes disease. Acta Paediatr. 1994;83(12):1237-1243. (Retrospective; 9 patients)
  92. * Nasser M, Fedorowicz Z, Khoshnevisan MH, et al. Acyclovir for treating primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(4):CD006700. (Meta-analysis; 2 trials, 92 patients)
  93. Nikkels AF, Pièrard GE. Treatment of mucocutaneous presentations of herpes simplex virus infections. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(7):475-487. (Review)
  94. Brady RC, Bernstein DI. Treatment of herpes simplex virus infections. Antiviral Res. 2004;61(2):73-81. (Review)
  95. Cernik C, Gallina K, Brodell RT. The treatment of herpes simplex infections: an evidence-based review. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(11):1137-1144. (Review)
  96. Mertz GJ, Jones CC, Mills J, et al. Long-term acyclovir suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes simplex virus infection. A multicenter double-blind trial. JAMA. 1988;260(2):201-206. (Prospective; 1146 patients)
  97. Fife KH, Crumpacker CS, Mertz GJ, et al. Recurrence and resistance patterns of herpes simplex virus following cessation of > or = 6 years of chronic suppression with acyclovir. Acyclovir Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1994;169(6):1338-1341. (Prospective; 243 patients)
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  100. Belshe RB, Leone PA, Bernstein DI, et al. Efficacy results of a trial of a herpes simplex vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(1):34-43. (Prospective; 8323 patients)
  101. Wheeler C AD. Eczema herpeticum, primary and recurrent. Arch Dermat. 1966;93:162-173. (Retrospective; 2 patients)
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  106. Mackley CL, Adams DR, Anderson B, et al. Eczema herpeticum: a dermatologic emergency. Derm Nurs. 2002;14(5):307- 310. (Review)
  107. Aronson PL, Yan AC, Mohamad Z, et al. Empiric antibiotics and outcomes of children hospitalized with eczema herpeticum. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(2):207-214. (Retrospective; 1150 patients)
  108. Aronson PL, Shah SS, Mohamad Z, et al. Topical corticosteroids and hospital length of stay in children with eczema herpeticum. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(2):215-221. (Retrospective; 1331 patients)
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