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<< Emergency Department Readiness For Pediatric Illness And Injury

References

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study will be included in bold type following the references, where available. The most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the author, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Gausche-Hill M, Schmitz C, Lewis RJ. Pediatric preparedness of US emergency departments: a 2003 survey. Pediatrics. 2007;120(6):1229-1237. (Cross-sectional survey; 5144 hospitals, 29% response rate)
  2. Athey J, Dean JM, Ball J, et al. Ability of hospitals to care for pediatric emergency patients. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2001;17(3):170-174. (Cross-sectional survey; 101 hospitals, 100% response rate)
  3. Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine; 2000. 1st ed. 2000. (IOM report)
  4. Kizer KW. Patient safety: a call to action. A consensus statement from the National Quality Forum. Med Gen Med. 2001;3:1-11. (Consensus statement)
  5. Derlet RW, Richards JR. Overcrowding in the nation’s emergency departments: complex causes and disturbing effects. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(1):63-68. (Review)
  6. Trzeciak S, Rivers EP. Emergency department overcrowding in the United States: an emerging threat to patient safety and public health. Emerg Med J. 2003;20(5):402-405. (Review)
  7. Ball JW, Liao E, Kavanaugh D, et al. The Emergency Medical Services for Children program: accomplishments and contributions. Clin Pediatr Emerg Med. 2006;7(1):6-14. (Review)
  8. Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services. Emergency Medical Services for Children. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine; 1993. (IOM report)
  9. Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System. Hospital-Based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine; 2006. (IOM report)
  10. Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System. Pediatric Emergency Care: Growing Pains. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine; 2006. (IOM report)
  11. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Committee. Care of children in the emergency department: guidelines for preparedness. Pediatrics. 2001;107(4):777-781. (National guidelines)
  12. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Committee. Care of children in the emergency department: guidelines for preparedness. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;37(4):423-427. (National guidelines)
  13. * American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Committee, Emergency Nurses Association Pediatric Committee. Joint policy statement--guidelines for care of children in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(4):543-552. (National guidelines)
  14. * American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Committee, Emergency Nurses Association Pediatric Committee. Joint policy statement--guidelines for care of children in the emergency department. Pediatrics. 2009;124(4):1233-1243. (National guidelines)
  15. McGillivray D, Nijssen-Jordan C, Kramer MS, et al. Critical pediatric equipment availability in Canadian hospital emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;37(4):371-376. (Cross-sectional survey; 737 hospitals, 88% response rate)
  16. * Middleton KR, Burt CW. Availability of pediatric services and equipment in emergency departments: United States, 2002-03. Adv Data. 2006(367):1-16. (Cross-sectional survey; 839 hospitals, 86% response rate)
  17. Schappert SM, Bhuiya F. Availability of pediatric services and equipment in emergency departments: United States, 2006. Natl Health Stat Report. 2012(47):1-21. (Cross-sectional survey; Emergency Pediatric Services and Equipment Supplement (EPSES), added to the 2006 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey [NHAMCS]; 80% response rate)
  18. Sullivan AF, Rudders SA, Gonsalves AL, et al. National survey of pediatric services available in US emergency departments. Int J Emerg Med. 2013;6(1):13. (Telephone survey; random sample of 279 hospital EDs; 85% response rate)
  19. Green NA, Durani Y, Brecher D, et al. Emergency Severity Index version 4: a valid and reliable tool in pediatric emergency department triage. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(8):753- 757. (Retrospective chart review; 780 patients; prospective cohort study; 100 patients)
  20. Emergency Severity Index (ESI): A Triage Tool for Emergency Department: DVDs and 2012 Edition of the Implementation Handbook. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; February 2013. (Educational materials)
  21. Warren DW, Jarvis A, LeBlanc L, et al. Revisions to the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale paediatric guidelines (PaedCTAS). CJEM. 2008;10(3):224-243. (Review)
  22. Roukema J, Steyerberg EW, van Meurs A, et al. Validity of the Manchester Triage System in paediatric emergency care. Emerg Med J. 2006;23(12):906-910. (Review; 1065 patients)
  23. van Veen M, Steyerberg EW, Ruige M, et al. Manchester Triage System in paediatric emergency care: prospective observational study. BMJ. 2008;337:a1501. (Prospective observational study; 17,600 patients)
  24. Sklar DP, Crandall CS, Loeliger E, et al. Unanticipated death after discharge home from the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49(6):735-745. (Retrospective cohort study; 186,859 patients)
  25. CRICO/RMF Strategies Emergency Medicine Leadership Council 2010. Optimizing physician-nurse communication in the emergency department: strategies for minimizing diagnosis-related errors. Available at: https://www.rmf. harvard.edu/~/media/Files/_Global/KC/PDFs/ed_white_ paper_min_diagnosis_errors.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2013. (Website resource)
  26. Broughton DD, Allen EE, Hannemann RE, et al. Getting 5000 families back together: reuniting fractured families after a disaster: the role of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Pediatrics. 2006;117(5 Pt 3):S442-S445. (Report)
  27. Chung S, Shannon M. Reuniting children with their families during disasters: a proposed plan for greater success. Am J Disaster Med. 2007;2(3):113-117. (Report)
  28. Gnauck KA, Nufer KE, LaValley JM, et al. Do pediatric and adult disaster victims differ? A descriptive analysis of clinical encounters from four natural disaster DMAT deployments. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22(1):67-73. (Retrospective cohort review; 2196 total patients, 643 pediatric patients)
  29. Sirbaugh PE, Gurwitch KD, Macias CG, et al. Caring for evacuated children housed in the Astrodome: creation and implementation of a mobile pediatric emergency response team: regionalized caring for displaced children after a disaster. Pediatrics. 2006;117(5 Pt 3):S428-S438. (Report)
  30. Gausche-Hill M. Pediatric disaster preparedness: are we really prepared? J Trauma. 2009;67(2 Suppl):S73-S76. (Review)
  31. Mace SE, Bern AI. Needs assessment: are disaster medical assistance teams up for the challenge of a pediatric disaster? Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25(7):762-769. (Needs assessment)
  32. Shirm S, Liggin R, Dick R, et al. Prehospital preparedness for pediatric mass-casualty events. Pediatrics. 2007;120(4):e756- e761. (Cross-sectional survey; 3748 ambulance services, 51% response rate)
  33. Graham J, Shirm S, Liggin R, et al. Mass-casualty events at schools: a national preparedness survey. Pediatrics. 2006;117(1):e8-e15. (Cross-sectional survey; 3670 schools, 58% response rate)
  34. Barfield WD, Krug SE, Kanter RK, et al. Neonatal and pediatric regionalized systems in pediatric emergency mass critical care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011;12(6 Suppl):S128-S134. (Consensus statement)
  35. Kleinman ME, Chameides L, Schexnayder SM, et al. Part 14: pediatric advanced life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S876-S908. (National guidelines)
  36. Kleinman ME, de Caen AR, Chameides L, et al. Pediatric basic and advanced life support: 2010 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):e1261-e1318. (Review)
  37. So TY, Farrington E, Absher RK. Evaluation of the accuracy of different methods used to estimate weights in the pediatric population. Pediatrics. 2009;123(6):e1045-e1051. (Prospective nonblinded observational study; 1011 children, 3 methods of weight estimation)
  38. Luten R, Wears RL, Broselow J, et al. Managing the unique size-related issues of pediatric resuscitation: reducing cognitive load with resuscitation aids. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(8):840-847. (Review)
  39. Nieman CT, Manacci CF, Super DM, et al. Use of the Broselow tape may result in the underresuscitation of children. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(10):1011-1019. (Cross-sectional observational study; 7500 children)
  40. Tsai A, Kallsen G. Epidemiology of pediatric prehospital care. Ann Emerg Med. 1987;16(3):284-292. (Retrospective review; 3184 patients)
  41. Seidel JS, Hornbein M, Yoshiyama K, et al. Emergency medical services and the pediatric patient: are the needs being met? Pediatrics. 1984;73(6):769-772. (Retrospective review of prehospital care reports in Los Angeles County, CA)
  42. Langhan M, Keshavarz R, Richardson LD. How comfortable are emergency physicians with pediatric patients? J Emerg Med. 2004;26(4):465-469. (Survey)
  43. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine. American College of Critical Care Medicine. Society of Critical Care Medicine. Consensus report for regionalization of services for critically ill or injured children. Pediatrics. 2000;105(1 Pt 1):152-155. (Consensus statement)
  44. Randolph AG, Gonzales CA, Cortellini L, et al. Growth of pediatric intensive care units in the United States from 1995 to 2001. J Pediatr. 2004;144(6):792-798. (Cross-sectional survey; 306 PICUs, 1995-1996; 349 PICUs, 2001-2002)
  45. Kocher KE, Sklar DP, Mehrotra A, et al. Categorization, designation, and regionalization of emergency care: definitions, a conceptual framework, and future challenges. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17(12):1306-1311. (Consensus conference proceedings)
  46. Spooner SA, Gotlieb EM. Telemedicine: pediatric applications. Pediatrics. 2004;113(6):e639-e643. (Report)
  47. Kofos D, Pitetti R, Orr R, et al. Telemedicine in pediatric transport: a feasibility study. Pediatrics. 1998;102(5):E58. (Prospective study; 15 patients)
  48. Heath B, Salerno R, Hopkins A, et al. Pediatric critical care telemedicine in rural underserved emergency departments. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10(5):588-591. (Prospective study; 63 telemedicine consultations, 10 rural EDs)
  49. Finley JP, Sharratt GP, Nanton MA, et al. Paediatric echocardiography by telemedicine--nine years’ experience. J Telemed Telecare. 1997;3(4):200-204. (Prospective study; 324 transmissions)
  50. Sable CA, Cummings SD, Pearson GD, et al. Impact of telemedicine on the practice of pediatric cardiology in community hospitals. Pediatrics. 2002;109(1):E3. (Prospective study; 2 community hospital nurseries, 500 echocardiogram studies, 364 patients)
  51. EMS for Children Performance Measures website. Available at: http://www.childrensnational.org/EMSC/ForGrantees/ Performance_Measures.aspx. Accessed June 12, 2013. (National guidelines)
  52. * Alessandrini E, Varadarajan K, Alpern ER, et al. Emergency department quality: an analysis of existing pediatric measures. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18(5):519-526. (Consensus recommendations)
  53. Los Angeles County EMS Agency website. Available at: http://ems.dhs.lacounty.gov. Accessed June 12, 2013. (Report; annual data)
  54. Institute for Quality, Safety, and Injury Prevention Practice & Research website. Available at: http://www.ena.org/ practice-research/Pages/about.aspx. Accessed June 8, 2013. (National guidelines)
  55. Emergency Nursing Pediatric Course. Available at: http:// www.ena.org/education/enpc-tncc/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed June 8, 2013. (Website resource)
  56. The Certified Pediatric Emergency Nurse Exam. Available at: http://www.pncb.org/ptistore/control/exams/cpen/ index. Accessed June 8, 2013. (Website resource)
  57. * Cichon ME, Fuchs S, Lyons E, et al. A statewide model program to improve emergency department readiness for pediatric care. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(2):198-204. (Review)
  58. Hohenhaus SM, Lyons E, Phillippi RG. Emergency departments and pediatric categorization, approval, and recognition: a review of two states. J Emerg Nurs. 2008;34(3):236-237. (Review)
  59. Remick KE, Gausche-Hill M. California Pediatric Readiness Project. California EMS Authority 2010-2012. Presented at: State of California EMS System Administrators Association Annual Conference; May 2013; California. (Preliminary report of cross-sectional survey; 335 hospitals; 90% response rate)
  60. Nawar EW, Niska RW, Xu J. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2005 emergency department summary. Adv Data. 2007;(386):1-32. (Cross-sectional survey)
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