<< Current Guidelines On HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis For Nonoccupational Exposures, Including Sexual Assault


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  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for postexposure interventions to prevent infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus, and tetanus in persons wounded during bombings and similar mass-casualty events — United States, 2008. MMWR. 2008;57(No. RR-6). (Guideline)
  2. Ende AR, Hein L, Sottolano DL, et al. Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis for exposure to HIV in New York State emergency departments. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22(10):797-802. (Retrospective review)
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2011; Vol. 23. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/ resources/reports/. Published February 2013. Accessed September 12, 2013. (Cross-sectional study)
  4. Merchant RC, Becker BM, Mayer KH, et al. Emergency department blood or body fluid exposure evaluations and HIV postexposure prophylaxis usage. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(12):1345-1353. (Retrospective review)
  5. Saltzman LE, Basile KC, Mahendra RR, et al. National estimates of sexual violence treated in emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49(2):210-217. (Systematic review)
  6. Varghese B, Maher JE, Peterman TA, et al. Reducing the risk of sexual HIV transmission: quantifying the per-act risk for HIV on the basis of choice of partner, sex act, and condom use. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29(1):38-43. (Systematic review)
  7. Myles JE, Hirozawa A, Katz MH, et al. Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV after sexual assault. JAMA. 2000;284(12):1516-1518. (Retrospective review)
  8. Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-12):1-110. (Guideline)
  9. Smith DK, Grohskipf LA, Black RJ, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection- drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the United States: recommendations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2005;54(RR-2):1-20. (Guidelines)
  10. Weller S, Davis K. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;1:CD003255. (Systematic review)
  11. Cohen MS, Chen YQ, HPTN 052 Study Team, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(6):493-505. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 1763 participants)
  12. Jamani S, Gulholm T, Poynten IM, et al. Timing and frequency of chlamydia and gonorrhea testing in a cross-sectional study of HIV postexposure prophylaxis recipients. Sex Transm Infect. 2013 May 29. [Epub ahead of print] (Cross-sectional study; 282 patients, 319 occasions)
  13. Otten RA, Smith DK, Adams DR, et al. Efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis after intravaginal exposure of pig-tailed macaques to a humanderived retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus type 2). J Virol. 2000;74(20):9771-9775. (Prospective controlled trial)
  14. Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Needlestick Surveillance Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(21):1485-1490. (Case-control study)
  15. Golub SA, Rosenthal L, Cohen DE, et al. Determinants of high-risk sexual behavior during post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(6):852-859. (Nonrandomized prospective trial; 108 participants)
  16. Reynolds MW, Peipert JF, Collins B. Epidemiologic issues of sexually transmitted diseases in sexual assault victims. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2000;55(1):51-57. (Systematic review)
  17. New York State Department of Health. Protocol for the acute care of the adult patient reporting sexual assault (revised October 2008). Available at: http://www.health.ny.gov/professionals/protocols_and_guidelines/ sexual_assault/ Accessed September 10, 2013. (Guideline)
Publication Information

Daniel Bell, MD; Peter Shearer, MD

Publication Date

October 3, 2013

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