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<< The Emergency Medicine Approach To The Evaluation And Treatment Of Pulmonary Embolism

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  4. Bell WR, Simon TL. Current status of pulmonary thromboembolic disease: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Am Heart J. 1982;103(2):239-262. (Review)
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  7. Cohen AT, Edmondson RA, Phillips MJ, et al. The changing pattern of venous thromboembolic disease. Haemostasis. 1996;26(2):65-71.
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  9. Goldhaber SZ. Pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(2):93-104. (Review)
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  12. Laporte S, Mismetti P, Decousus H, et al. Clinical predictors for fatal pulmonary embolism in 15,520 patients with venous thromboembolism: findings from the registro informatizado de la enfermedad tromboembolica venosa (riete) registry. Circulation. 2008;117(13):1711-1716. (Registry review; 15,520 patients)
  13. Menzel T, Wagner S, Kramm T, et al. Pathophysiology of impaired right and left ventricular function in chronic embolic pulmonary hypertension: changes after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Chest. 2000;118(4):897-903. (Comparative study; 39 patients)
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  15. Piazza GS. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:351-360. (Review)
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  19. * Courtney DM, Kline JA, Kabrhel C, et al. Clinical features from the history and physical examination that predict the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism in symptomatic emergency department patients: Results of a prospective, multicenter study. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;55(4):307-315. (Prospective multicenter study; 7940 patients)
  20. Stein PD, Beemath A, Matta F. Clinical characteristics of patients with acute pulmonary embolism: Data from PIOPED III. Am J Med. 2007;120:871-879. (Prospective multicenter clinical study; 773 patients)
  21. Chunilal SD, Eikelboom JW, Attia J, et al. Does this patient have pulmonary embolism? JAMA. 2003;290(21):2849-2858. (Review)
  22. Kabrhel C, Mark Courtney D, Camargo Jr, et al. Potential impact of adjusting the threshold of the quantitative D-dimer based on pretest probability of acute pulmonary embolism. Acad Emerg Med. 2009;16:325-332. (Prospective multicenter study; 7940 patients)
  23. Sanson BJ, Limer JG, MacGillavry MR, et al. Comparison of a clinical probability estimate and two clinical models in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. ANTELOPE-Study Group. Thromb Haemost. 2000;83(2):199-203. (Prospective comparative multicenter study; 517 patients)
  24. * Runyon MS, Webb WB, Jones AE, et al. Comparison of the unstructured clinician estimate of pretest probability for pulmonary embolism to the Canadian score and the Charlotte rule: a prospective observational study. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12(7):587-593. (Prospective; 2603 patients)
  25. The PIOPED Investigators. Value of the ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis. Results of the prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED). JAMA. 1990;263:2753-2759. (Prosepective; 1493 patients)
  26. Kabrhel C, Camargo CA Jr, Goldhaber SZ. Clinical gestalt and the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: does experience matter? Chest. 2005;127(5):1627-1630. (Prospective; 583 patients)
  27. Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, et al. Derivation of a simple clinical model to categorize patients probability of pulmonary embolism: Increasing the models utility with the simplired d-dimer. Thromb Haemost. 2000;83(3):416-420. (Randomized control clinical study)
  28. Klok FA, Mos IC, Nijkeuter M, et al. Simplification of the revised Geneva score for assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism. Arch Int Med. 2008;168(19):2131-2136. (Prospective; 1049 patients)
  29. Kline JA, Courntney DM, Kabrhel C, et al. Prospective multicenter evaluation of the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6(5):722-780.
  30. * Kline JA, Nelson RD, Jackson RE, et al. Criteria for the safe use of D-dimer testing in emergency department patients with suspected pulmonary embolism: A multicenter US study. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39(2):144-152. (Validation; 934 patients)
  31. Miniati M, Bottai M, Monti S, et al. Simple and accurate prediction of the clinical probability of pulmonary embolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178(3):290-294. (Validation; 1100 patients)
  32. Lucassen W, Geersing GJ, Erkens PM, et al. Clinical decision rules for excluding pulmonary embolism: A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(7):448-460. (Meta-analysis)
  33. Wolf SJ, McCubbin TR, Nordenholz KE, et al. Assessment of the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria rule for evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26(2):181-185. (Validation study; 134 patients)
  34. Drescher FS, Chandrika S, Weir ID, et al. Effectiveness and acceptability of a computerized decision support system using modified Wells criteria for evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57(6):613-621. (Prospective; 404 patients)
  35. Goldhaber SZ. Pulmonary embolism. Lancet. 2004;363(9417):1295-1305. (Review)
  36. * Stein PD, Woodard PK, Weg JG, et al. Diagnostic pathways in acute pulmonary embolism: Recommendations of the PIOPED II investigators. Radiology. 2007;242(1):15-21. (Review/guidelines)
  37. Elliott CG, Goldhaber SZ, Visani L, et al. Chest radiographs in acute pulmonary embolism. Results from the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry. Chest. 2000;118(1):33-38. (Prospective; 2454 patients)
  38. Stein PD, Terrin ML, Hales CA, et al. Clinical, laboratory, roentgenographic and electrocardiographic findings in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and no pre-existing cardiac or pulmonary disease. Chest. 1991;100(3):598-603. (Retrospective; 117 patients)
  39. Ferrari E, Imbert A, Chevalier T, et al. The ECG in pulmonary embolism. Predictive value of negative T waves in precordial leads - 80 case reports. Chest. 1997;111(3):537-543. (Retrospective; 80 patients)
  40. Kosuge M, Kimura K, Ishikawa T, et al. Prognostic significance of inverted T waves in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Circ J. 2006;70(6):750-755. (Retrospective; 40 patients)
  41. Kosuge M, Kimura K, Ishikawa T, et al. Electrocardiographic differentiation between acute pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndromes on the basis of negative T waves. Am J Cardiol. 2007;99(6):817-821. (Retrospective; 127 patients)
  42. Stein PD, Goldhaber SZ, Henry JW, et al. Arterial blood gas analysis in the assessment of suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 1996;109(1):78-81. (Retrospective; 768 patients)
  43. Stein PD GS, Henry JW. Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient in the assessment of acute pulmonary embolism. Chest 1995;107(1):139-143. (Retrospective; 280 patients)
  44. Jones JS, Neff TL, Carlson SA. Use of the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient in the assessment of acute pulmonary embolism. Am J Emerg Med. 1998;16(4):333-337. (Retrospective; 152 patients)
  45. Farrell S, Hayes T, Shaw M. A negative simpliRED D-dimer assay result does not exclude the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolus in emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(2):121-125. (Prospective; 173 patients)
  46. * Fesmire FM, Brown MD, Espinosa JA, et al. Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected pulmonary embolism. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57(6):628-652. (Guideline)
  47. Brown MD, Rowe BH, Reeves MJ, et al. The accuracy of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay D-dimer test in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;40(2):133-144. (Meta-analysis)
  48. Carrier M, Righini M, Djurabi RK, et al. VIDAS D-dimer in combination with clinical pre-test probability to rule out pulmonary embolism. A systematic review of management outcome studies. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101(5):886-892. (Meta-analysis)
  49. Bounameaux H. Contemporary management of pulmonary embolism: the answers to ten questions. J Intern Med. 2010;268(3):218-231. (Review)
  50. Rhigini M, Aujesky D, Roy PM, et al. Clinical usefulness of D-dimer depending on clinical probability and cutoff value in outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(22):2483-2487. (Retrospective)
  51. Ouellette DW, Patocka C. Pulmonary embolism. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2012;30(2):329-375. (Review)
  52. * Stein PD, Fowler SE, Goodman LR, et al. Multidetector computed tomography for acute pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(22):2317-2327. (Prospective; 824 patients)
  53. Couturaud F, Parent F, Meyer G, et al. Effect of age on the performance of a diagnostic strategy based on clinical probability, spiral computed tomography and venous compression ultrasonography: The ESSEP study. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93(3):605-609. (Retrospective; 1041 patients)
  54. Remy-Jardin M, Remy J, Wattinne L, et al. Central pulmonary thromboembolism: diagnosis with spiral volumetric CT with the single-breath-hold technique--comparison with pulmonary angiography. Radiology. 1992;185:381-387. (Prospective; 42 patients)
  55. * Carrier M, Righini M, Wells PS, et al. Subsegmental pulmonary embolism diagnosed by computed tomography: incidence and clinical implications. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the management outcome studies. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8(8):1716-1722. (Systematic review)
  56. Mettler FA, Jr, Huda W, Yoshizumi TT, et al. Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: a catalog. Radiology. 2008;248(1):254-263. (Review)
  57. Wang PI, Chong ST, Kielar AZ, et al. Imaging of pregnant and lactating patients: Part 2, evidence-based review and recommendations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(4):785-792. (Review)
  58. No authors listed. Value of the ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism. Results of the prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED). THE PIOPED Investigators. JAMA. 1990;263(20):2753-2759. (Prospective comparative study; 933 patients)
  59. Labovitz AJ, Noble VE, Bierig M, et al. Focused cardiac ultrasound in the emergent setting: a consensus statement of the American Society of Echocardiography and American College of Emergency Physicians. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010;23(12):1225-1230. (Consensus development conference)
  60. Goldhaber SZ. Pulmonary embolism thrombolysis: broadening the paradigm for its administration. Circulation. 1997;96(3):716-718. (Editorial)
  61. ten Wolde M, Söhne M, Quak E, et al. Prognostic value of echocardiographically assessed right ventricular dysfunction in patients with pulmonary embolism. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1685-1689. (Systematic review)
  62. Ribeiro A, Lindmarker P, Juhlin-Dannfelt A, et al. Echocardiography Doppler in pulmonary embolism: right ventricular dysfunction as a predictor of mortality rate. Am Heart J. 1997;134(3):479-487. (Prospective; 141 patients)
  63. Bova C, Greco F, Misuraca G, et al. Diagnostic utility of echocardiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21(3):180-183. (Prospective; 162 patients)
  64. Kasper W, Konstantinides S, Geibel A, et al. Prognostic significance of right ventricular afterload stress detected by echocardiography in patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. Heart. 1997;77(4):346-349. (Prospective; 317 patients)
  65. Piazza G, Goldhaber SZ. Management of submassive pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 2010;122(11):1124-1129.
  66. Perrier A, Miron MJ, Desmarais S, et al. Using clinical evaluation and lung scan to rule out suspected pulmonary embolism: is it a valid option in patients with normal results of lower-limb venous compression ultrasonography? Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(4):512-516. (Retrospective cohort study; 1034 patients)
  67. Daniel KR, Jackson RE, Kline JA. Utility of lower extremity venous ultrasound scanning in the diagnosis and exclusion of pulmonary embolism in outpatients. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(6):547-554. (Prospective; 156 patients)
  68. Miniati M, Prediletto R, Formichi B, et al. Accuracy of clinical assessment in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(3):864-871. (Prospective; 750 patients)
  69. Hull RD, Raskob GE, Ginsberg JS, et al. A noninvasive strategy for the treatment of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(3):289-297. (Prospective; 1564 patients)
  70. Wells PS, Ginsberg JS, Anderson DR, et al. Use of a clinical model for safe management of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129(12):997-1005. (Prospective cohort study; 1239 patients)
  71. Torbicki A, Perrier A, Konstantinides S, et al. Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2008;29(18):2276-2315. (Practice guidelines)
  72. Jiménez D, Aujesky D, Moores L, et al. Simplification of the pulmonary embolism severity index for prognostication in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolismsimplified pulmonary embolism severity index. Arch Int Med. 2010;170(15):1383-1389. (Prospective; derivation set: 1017 patients; validation set: 7106 patients)
  73. Lankeit M, Gómez V, Wagner C, et al. A strategy combining imaging and laboratory biomarkers in comparison with a simplified clinical score for risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2012;141(4):916-922. (Prospective comparative study; 526 patients)
  74. Pruszczyk P, Bochowicz A, Torbicki A, et al. Cardiac troponin T monitoring identifies a high-risk group of normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2003;123(6):1947-1952. (Observational; 64 patients)
  75. Stein PD, Alshabkhoun S, Hatem C, et al. Coronary artery blood flow in acute pulmonary embolism. Am J Cardiol. 1968;21(1):32-37. (Animal study)
  76. Aksay E, Yanturali S, Kiyan S. Can elevated troponin I levels predict complicated clinical course and inhospital mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism? Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25(2):138-143. (Retrospective; 77 patients)
  77. Melanson SE, Laposata M, Camargo CA Jr et al. Combination of D-dimer and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing for the evaluation of dyspneic patients with and without acute pulmonary embolism. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006;130(9):1326-1329. (Retrospective; 218 patients)
  78. Hyers TM, Agnelli G, Hull RD, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease. Chest. 2001;119(1 Suppl):176S-193S. (Review)
  79. Erkens PM, Prins MH. Fixed-dose subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparins versus adjusted dose unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(9):CD001100. (Meta-analysis; 23 studies)
  80. Agterof MJ, Schutgens RE, Snijder RJ, et al. Out-of-hospital treatment of acute pulmonary embolism in patients with a low NT-proBNP level. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8(6):1235-1241. (Prospective; 152 patients)
  81. Kucher N, Rossi E, De Rosa M, et al. Massive pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 2006;113(4):577-582. (Retrospective; 2392 patients)
  82. No authors listed. Urokinase pulmonary embolism trial. Phase 1 results: a cooperative study. JAMA. 1970;214(12):2163-2172. (Prospective; 11 patients)
  83. No authors listed. The urokinase pulmonary embolism trial. A national cooperative study. Circulation. 1973;47(2 Suppl):II1-108.
  84. Verstraete M, Miller GA, Bounameaux H, et al. Intravenous and intrapulmonary recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in the treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 1988;77(2):353-360. (Randomized controlled trial; 34 patients)
  85. Goldhaber SZ. TPA versus urokinase in acute pulmonary embolism: results of a randomized controlled trial. Vasa Suppl. 1989;27:292-294. (Randomized controlled trial; 45 patients)
  86. Goldhaber SZ. Tissue plasminogen activator in acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 1989;95(5 Suppl):282S-289S. (Review)
  87. Meyer G, Sors H, Charbonnier B, et al. Effects of intravenous urokinase versus alteplase on total pulmonary resistance in acute massive pulmonary embolism: a European multicenter double-blind trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1992;19(2):239-245. (Randomized controlled trial; 63 patients)
  88. Goldhaber SZ, Haire WD, Feldstein ML, et al. Alteplase versus heparin in acute pulmonary embolism: randomised trial assessing right-ventricular function and pulmonary perfusion. Lancet. 1993;341(8844):507-511. (Randomized controlled trial; 46 patients)
  89. Konstantinides S, Geibel A, Heusel G, et al. Heparin plus alteplase compared with heparin alone in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(15):1143-1150. (Randomized controlled trial; 256 patients)
  90. Stein PD, Matta F. Thrombolytic therapy in unstable patients with acute pulmonary embolism: saves lives but underused. Am J Med. 2012;125(5):465-470. (Retrospective national database review; 72,230 patients)
  91. National Guidelines Clearinghouse. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® radiologic management of inferior vena cava filters. Available at: http://guidelines.gov/content.aspx?id=15730. Accessed May 31, 2012. (Guideline)
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  93. Burge AJ, Freeman KD, Klapper PJ, et al. Increased diagnosis of pulmonary embolism without a corresponding decline in mortality during the CT era. Clin Radiol. 2008;63(4):381-386. (Retrospective statewide database review)
  94. Sheh SH, Bellin E, Freeman KD, et al. Pulmonary embolism diagnosis and mortality with pulmonary CT angiography versus ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy: evidence of overdiagnosis with CT? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(6):1340-1345. (Retrospective; 2087 patients)
  95. Stein EG, Haramati LB, Chamarthy M, et al. Success of a safe and simple algorithm to reduce use of CT pulmonary angiography in the emergency department. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194(2):392-397. (Prospective)
  96. Anderson DR, Kahn SR, Rodger MA, et al. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography vs ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in patients with suspected pulmonary embolisma randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;298(23):2743-2753. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 1417 patients)
  97. Remy-Jardin M, Pistolesi M, Goodman LR, et al. Management of suspected acute pulmonary embolism in the era of CT angiography: a statement from the Fleischner Society. Radiology. 2007;245(2):315-329. (Review)
  98. Leung AN, Bull TM, Jaeschke R, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/Society of Thoracic Radiology clinical practice guideline: evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(10):1200-1208. (Guidelines)
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