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<< Critical Care Of Severe Thermal Burn Injury (Trauma CME)

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. American Burn Association. Burn incidence and treatment in the United States: 2011 Fact Sheet. 2012. Available at: http://www.ameriburn.org/resources_factsheet.php. (Retrospective registry review)
  2. Willis MS, Carlson DL, Dimaio JM, et al. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor mediates late cardiac dysfunction after burn injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288(2):H795-H804. (Animal study)
  3. Mertens DM, Jenkins ME, Warden GD. Outpatient burn management. Nurs Clin North Am. 1997;32(2):343-364. (Review)
  4. Kasten KR, Makley AT, Kagan RJ. Update on the critical care management of severe burns. J Intensive Care Med. 2011;26(4):223-236. (Review)
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  6. Mitra B, Fitzgerald M, Cameron P, et al. Fluid resuscitation in major burns. ANZ J Surg. 2006;76(1-2):35-38. (Retrospective; 127 patients)
  7. * Latenser BA. Critical care of the burn patient: the first 48 hours. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(10):2819-2826. (Review)
  8. Wallace AB. The exposure treatment of burns. Lancet. 1951;1(6653):501-504. (Historical reference)
  9. Lund CC, Browder NC. The estimation of areas of burns. Sug Gynecol Obstet. 1944;79:352-358. (Historical reference)
  10. Wachtel TL, Berry CC, Wachtel EE, et al. The inter-rater reliability of estimating the size of burns from various burn area chart drawings. Burns. 2000;26(2):156-170. (Comparative; simulation cases)
  11. Burke BA, Lewis RW 2nd, Latenser BA, et al. Methamphetamine-related burns in the cornbelt. J Burn Care Res. 2008;29(4):574-579. (Retrospective; 410 patients)
  12. Santos AP, Wilson AK, Hornung CA, et al. Methamphetamine laboratory explosions: a new and emerging burn injury. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2005;26(3):228-232. (Retrospective; 60 patients)
  13. Ahrns KS. Trends in burn resuscitation: shifting the focus from fluids to adequate endpoint monitoring, edema control, and adjuvant therapies. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2004;16(1):75-98. (Review)
  14. Cochran A, Morris SE, Edelman LS, et al. Burn patient characteristics and outcomes following resuscitation with albumin. Burns. 2007;33(1):25-30. (Retrospective; 101 patients)
  15. Underhill FP. The significance of anhydremia in extensive surface burn. JAMA. 1930;95:852-857. (Historical reference)
  16. Cope O, Moore FD. The redistribution of body water and the fluid therapy of the burned patient. Ann Surg. 1947;126(6):1010-1045. (Case series; 19 patients)
  17. Pham TN, Cancio LC, Gibran NS, et al. American Burn Association practice guidelines burn shock resuscitation. J Burn Care Res. 2008;29(1):257-266. (Practice guideline)
  18. Baxter CR, Shires T. Physiological response to crystalloid resuscitation of severe burns. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1968;150(3):874-894. (Animal study)
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  20. Pruitt BA Jr. Protection from excessive resuscitation: “pushing the pendulum back.” J Trauma. 2000;49(3):567-568. (Review)
  21. Engrav LH, Colescott PL, Kemalyan N, et al. A biopsy of the use of the Baxter formula to resuscitate burns or do we do it like Charlie did it? J Burn Care Rehabil. 2000;21(2):91-95. (Retrospective; 50 patients)
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  24. * Cartotto R, Zhou A. Fluid creep: the pendulum hasn’t swung back yet! J Burn Care Res. 2010;31(4):551-558. (Retrospective; 196 patients)
  25. Friedrich JB, Sullivan SR, Engrav LH, et al. Is supra-Baxter resuscitation in burn patients a new phenomenon? Burns. 2004;30(5):464-466. (Retrospective; 22 patients)
  26. Sullivan SR, Friedrich JB, Engrav LH, et al. “Opioid creep” is real and may be the cause of “fluid creep.” Burns. 2004;30(6):583-590. (Retrospective; 22 patients)
  27. Wibbenmeyer L, Sevier A, Liao J, et al. The impact of opioid administration on resuscitation volumes in thermally injured patients. J Burn Care Res. 2010;31(1):48-56. (Retrospective; 154 patients)
  28. Evans EI. The early management of the severely burned patient. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1952;94(3):273-282. (Historical)
  29. Greenhalgh DG. Burn resuscitation: the results of the ISBI/ABA survey. Burns. 2010;36(2):176-182. (Multicenter survey; 101 respondents)
  30. Agarwal N, Petro J, Salisbury RE. Physiologic profile monitoring in burned patients. J Trauma. 1983;23(7):577-583. (Prospective observational; 18 patients)
  31. Cartotto RC, Innes M, Musgrave MA, et al. How well does the Parkland formula estimate actual fluid resuscitation volumes? J Burn Care Rehabil. 2002;23(4):258-265. (Retrospective; 31 patients)
  32. Dries DJ, Waxman K. Adequate resuscitation of burn patients may not be measured by urine output and vital signs. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(3):327-329. (Retrospective; 14 patients)
  33. Jeng JC, Lee K, Jablonski K, et al. Serum lactate and base deficit suggest inadequate resuscitation of patients with burn injuries: application of a point-of-care laboratory instrument. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997;18(5):402-405. (Prospective; 53 patients)
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  35. Holm C, Mayr M, Tegeler J, et al. A clinical randomized study on the effects of invasive monitoring on burn shock resuscitation. Burns. 2004;30(8):798-807. (Randomized controlled trial; 50 patients)
  36. Bernard F, Gueugniaud PY, Bertin-Maghit M, et al. Prognostic significance of early cardiac index measurements in severely burned patients. Burns. 1994;20(6):529-531. (Retrospective; 38 patients)
  37. Aikawa N, Ishibiki K, Naito C, et al. Individualized fluid resuscitation based on haemodynamic monitoring in the management of extensive burns. Burns Incl Therm Inj. 1982;8(4):249-255. (Case series; 21 patients)
  38. Aikawa N, Martyn JA, Burke JF. Pulmonary artery catheterization and thermodilution cardiac output determination in the management of critically burned patients. Am J Surg. 1978;135(6):811-817. (Retrospective; 39 patients)
  39. Barton RG, Saffle JR, Morris SE, et al. Resuscitation of thermally injured patients with oxygen transport criteria as goals of therapy. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997;18(1 Pt 1):1-9. (Prospective observational; 9 patients)
  40. Miller JG, Bunting P, Burd DA, et al. Early cardiorespiratory patterns in patients with major burns and pulmonary insufficiency. Burns. 1994;20(6):542-546. (Retrospective; 50 patients)
  41. Klein MB, Hayden D, Elson C, et al. The association between fluid administration and outcome following major burn: a multicenter study. Ann Surg. 2007;245(4):622-628. (Retrospective; 72 patients)
  42. * Saffle JI. The phenomenon of “fluid creep” in acute burn resuscitation. J Burn Care Res. 2007;28(3):382-395. (Review)
  43. Ipaktchi K, Arbabi S. Advances in burn critical care. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(9 Suppl):S239-S244. (Review)
  44. Oda J, Ueyama M, Yamashita K, et al. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients. J Trauma. 2006;60(1):64-71. (Prospective comparative; 36 patients)
  45. Oda J, Yamashita K, Inoue T, et al. Resuscitation fluid volume and abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with major burns. Burns. 2006;32(2):151-154. (Prospective comparative; 48 patients)
  46. Sullivan SR, Ahmadi AJ, Singh CN, et al. Elevated orbital pressure: another untoward effect of massive resuscitation after burn injury. J Trauma. 2006;60(1):72-76. (Retrospective; 13 patients)
  47. Ahrns KS, Harkins DR. Initial resuscitation after burn injury: therapies, strategies, and controversies. AACN Clin Issues. 1999;10(1):46-60. (Review)
  48. Chung KK, Wolf SE, Cancio LC, et al. Resuscitation of severely burned military casualties: fluid begets more fluid. J Trauma. 2009;67(2):231-237. (Retrospective; 58 patients)
  49. Marik PE, Baram M, Vahid B. Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? A systematic review of the literature and the tale of seven mares. Chest. 2008;134(1):172-178. (Review)
  50. Reid RD, Jayamaha J. The use of a cardiac output monitor to guide the initial fluid resuscitation in a patient with burns. Emerg Med J. 2007;24(5):e32. (Case report)
  51. Holm C, Melcer B, Horbrand F, et al. Haemodynamic and oxygen transport responses in survivors and non-survivors following thermal injury. Burns. 2000;26(1):25-33. (Retrospective; 21 patients)
  52. Ramzy PI, Barret JP, Herndon DN. Thermal injury. Crit Care Clin. 1999;15(2):333-352. (Review)
  53. Faucher L, Furukawa K. Practice guidelines for the management of pain. J Burn Care Res. 2006;27(5):659-668. (Practice guideline)
  54. Abdi S, Zhou Y. Management of pain after burn injury. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2002;15(5):563-567. (Review)
  55. Furman WR, Munster AM, Cone EJ. Morphine pharmacokinetics during anesthesia and surgery in patients with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1990;11(5):391-394. (Retrospective; 14 patients)
  56. Yamashita S, Kaneda K, Han TH. Population pharmacokinetics of a propofol bolus administered in patients with major burns. Burns. 2010;36(8):1215-1221. (Retrospective; 36 patients)
  57. Patterson DR, Ptacek JT, Carrougher GJ, et al. Lorazepam as an adjunct to opioid analgesics in the treatment of burn pain. Pain. 1997;72(3):367-374. (Randomized controlled trial; 79 patients)
  58. Lin H, Faraklas I, Sampson C, et al. Use of dexmedetomidine for sedation in critically ill mechanically ventilated pediatric burn patients. J Burn Care Res. 2011;32(1):98-103. (Retrospective; 11 patients)
  59. Hebert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, et al. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(6):409-417. (Randomized controlled trial; 838 patients)
  60. Palmieri TL, Caruso DM, Foster KN, et al. Effect of blood transfusion on outcome after major burn injury: a multicenter study. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(6):1602-1607. (Retrospective; 661 patients)
  61. Kwan P, Gomez M, Cartotto R. Safe and successful restriction of transfusion in burn patients. J Burn Care Res. 2006;27(6):826-834. (Retrospective; 172 patients)
  62. Berger MM, Bernath MA, Chiolero RL. Resuscitation, anaesthesia and analgesia of the burned patient. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2001;14(4):431-435. (Review)
  63. * Wasiak J, Cleland H, Campbell F. Dressings for superficial and partial thickness burns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(4):CD002106. (Systematic literature review)
  64. Sargent RL. Management of blisters in the partial-thickness burn: an integrative research review. J Burn Care Res. 2006;27(1):66-81. (Practice guideline)
  65. Sawada Y, Urushidate S, Yotsuyanagi T, et al. Is prolonged and excessive cooling of a scalded wound effective? Burns. 1997;23(1):55-58. (Animal study)
  66. Hunter GR, Chang FC. Outpatient burns: a prospective study. J Trauma. 1976;16(3):191-195. (Retrospective)
  67. Brown TP, Cancio LC, McManus AT, et al. Survival benefit conferred by topical antimicrobial preparations in burn patients: a historical perspective. J Trauma. 2004;56(4):863-866. (Review)
  68. * D’Avignon LC, Chung KK, Saffle JR, et al. Prevention of infections associated with combat-related burn injuries. J Trauma. 2011;71(2 Suppl 2):S282-S289. (Review)
  69. Dai T, Huang YY, Sharma SK, et al. Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2010;5(2):124-151. (Review)
  70. Woodley DT, O’Keefe EJ, Prunieras M. Cutaneous wound healing: a model for cell-matrix interactions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;12(2 Pt 2):420-433. (Basic science investigation)
  71. Schonfeld N. Outpatient management of burns in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1990;6(3):249-253. (Review)
  72. Kulick MI, Wong R, Okarma TB, et al. Prospective study of side effects associated with the use of silver sulfadiazine in severely burned patients. Ann Plast Surg. 1985;14(5):407-419. (Retrospective; 45 patients)
  73. Thomson PD, Moore NP, Rice TL, et al. Leukopenia in acute thermal injury: evidence against topical silver sulfadiazine as the causative agent. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1989;10(5):418-420. (Retrospective; 70 patients)
  74. Kucan JO, Smoot EC. Five percent mafenide acetate solution in the treatment of thermal injuries. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1993;14(2 Pt 1):158-163. (Retrospective; 669 patients)
  75. Subrahmanyam M. Honey dressing for burns. Indian J Plast Surg. 2010;43(2):231-232. (Review)
  76. Nadworny PL, Wang J, Tredget EE, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of nanocrystalline silver-derived solutions in porcine contact dermatitis. J Inflamm (Lond). 2010;7:13. (Animal study)
  77. Dunn K, Edwards-Jones V. The role of Acticoat with nanocrystalline silver in the management of burns. Burns. 2004;(30 Suppl 1):S1-S9. (Review)
  78. Storm-Versloot MN, Vos CG, Ubbink DT, et al. Topical silver for preventing wound infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(3):CD006478. (Systematic literature review)
  79. Weaver LK, Howe S, Hopkins R, et al. Carboxyhemoglobin half-life in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients treated with 100% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Chest. 2000;117(3):801- 808. (Review)
  80. Kealey GP. Carbon monoxide toxicity. J Burn Care Res. 2009;30(1):146-147. (Review)
  81. Baud FJ, Barriot P, Toffis V, et al. Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(25):1761-1766. (Retrospective; 223 patients)
  82. Barillo DJ. Diagnosis and treatment of cyanide toxicity. J Burn Care Res. 2009;30(1):148-152. (Review)
  83. Karyoute SM, Badran IZ. Tetanus following a burn injury. Burns Incl Therm Inj. 1988;14(3):241-243. (Case report)
  84. Padmakumar B, Date AR. Tetanus in an unvaccinated child in the United Kingdom: case report. J Public Health (Oxf). 2005;27(1):118-119. (Case report)
  85. Gomez R, Murray CK, Hospenthal DR, et al. Causes of mortality by autopsy findings of combat casualties and civilian patients admitted to a burn unit. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;208(3):348-354. (Autopsy review; 74 autopsies)
  86. Bloemsma GC, Dokter J, Boxma H, et al. Mortality and causes of death in a burn centre. Burns. 2008;34(8):1103-1107. (Retrospective registry review)
  87. Miller K, Chang A. Acute inhalation injury. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2003;21(2):533-557. (Review)
  88. Gronert GA, Theye RA. Pathophysiology of hyperkalemia induced by succinylcholine. Anesthesiology. 1975;43(1):89-99. (Animal study)
  89. Marathe PH, Dwersteg JF, Pavlin EG, et al. Effect of thermal injury on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atracurium in humans. Anesthesiology. 1989;70(5):752-755. (Retrospective; 8 patients)
  90. Baxter CR, Marvin JA, Curreri PW. Early management of thermal burns. Postgrad Med. 1974;55(1):131-139. (Review)
  91. Cancio LC, Reifenberg L, Barillo DJ, et al. Standard variables fail to identify patients who will not respond to fluid resuscitation following thermal injury: brief report. Burns. 2005;31(3):358-365. (Retrospective; 3807 patients)
  92. Greenhalgh DG. Burn resuscitation. J Burn Care Res. 2007;28(4):555-565. (Review)
  93. Fodor L, Fodor A, Ramon Y, et al. Controversies in fluid resuscitation for burn management: literature review and our experience. Injury. 2006;37(5):374-379. (Review)
  94. Gore DC, Dalton JM, Gehr TW. Colloid infusions reduce glomerular filtration in resuscitated burn victims. J Trauma. 1996;40(3):356-360. (Prospective comparative; 6 patients)
  95. Goodwin CW, Dorethy J, Lam V, et al. Randomized trial of efficacy of crystalloid and colloid resuscitation on hemodynamic response and lung water following thermal injury. Ann Surg. 1983;197(5):520-531. (Randomized controlled trial; 79 patients)
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  98. Huang PP, Stucky FS, Dimick AR, et al. Hypertonic sodium resuscitation is associated with renal failure and death. Ann Surg. 1995;221(5):543-554; discussion 554-547. (Retrospective; 174 patients)
  99. Saffle J. Practice guidelines for burn care. J Burn Care. 2001;22(Suppl):i. (Practice guideline)
  100. Bjerknes R, Vindenes H, Laerum OD. Altered neutrophil functions in patients with large burns. Blood cells. 1990;16(1):127-141; discussion 142-143. (Prospective; 116 patients)
  101. Schwacha MG, Ayala A, Chaudry IH. Insights into the role of gammadelta T lymphocytes in the immunopathogenic response to thermal injury. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;67(5):644-650. (Animal study)
  102. Peter FW, Schuschke DA, Barker JH, et al. The effect of severe burn injury on proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte behavior: its modulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Burns. 1999;25(6):477-486. (Animal study)
  103. Ugburo AO, Atoyebi OA, Oyeneyin JO, et al. An evaluation of the role of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of burn wound infection at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Burns. 2004;30(1):43-48. (Randomized controlled trial; 61 patients)
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  106. Tanaka H, Matsuda T, Miyagantani Y, et al. Reduction of resuscitation fluid volumes in severely burned patients using ascorbic acid administration: a randomized, prospective study. Arch Surg. 2000;135(3):326-331. (Randomized controlled trial; 37 patients)
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  108. Aida T, Murata J, Asano G, et al. Effects of polyprenoic acid on thermal injury. Br J Exp Pathol. 1987;68(3):351-358. (Animal study)
  109. Costantini TW, Loomis WH, Putnam JG, et al. Pentoxifylline modulates intestinal tight junction signaling after burn injury: effects on myosin light chain kinase. J Trauma. 2009;66(1):17-24; discussion 24-25. (Animal study)
  110. Warden GD, Stratta RJ, Saffle JR, et al. Plasma exchange therapy in patients failing to resuscitate from burn shock. J Trauma. 1983;23(10):945-951. (Retrospective; 22 patients)
  111. Kravitz M, Warden GD, Sullivan JJ, et al. A randomized trial of plasma exchange in the treatment of burn shock. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1989;10(1):17-26. (Randomized controlled trial; 22 patients)
  112. Neff LP, Allman JM, Holmes JH. The use of theraputic plasma exchange (TPE) in the setting of refractory burn shock. Burns. 2010;36(3):372-378.(Retrospective; 40 patients)
  113. Norbury WB, Jeschke MG, Herndon DN. Metabolism modulators in sepsis: propranolol. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(9 Suppl):S616-S620. (Review)
  114. Arbabi S, Ahrns KS, Wahl WL, et al. Beta-blocker use is associated with improved outcomes in adult burn patients. J Trauma. 2004;56(2):265-269; discussion 269-271. (Retrospective; 107 patients)
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  122. Hart DW, Wolf SE, Chinkes DL, et al. Effects of early excision and aggressive enteral feeding on hypermetabolism, catabolism, and sepsis after severe burn. J Trauma. 2003;54(4):755- 761; discussion 761-764. (Retrospective; 46 patients)
  123. Barret JP, Herndon DN. Effects of burn wound excision on bacterial colonization and invasion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111(2):744-750; discussion 751-752. (Retrospective; 12 patients)
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