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<< Managing Childhood Obesity In The Emergency Department

References

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study will be included in bold type following the references, where available.

  1. Ogden CL, Flegal K, Carroll M, et al. Prevalence and trends in overweight among U.S. children and adolescents, 1999-2000. JAMA. 2002;288(14):1728-1732. (Cross-sectional survey; 4722 children)
  2. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):242-249. (Survey; 4000 children)
  3. Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet. 2002;360(9331):473-482. (Seminar)
  4. Jolliffe D. Extent of overweight among US children and adolescents from 1971 to 2000. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(1):4-9. (Survey; 14,627 children)
  5. Ogden CL, Yanovski SZ, Carroll MD, et al. The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology. 2007:132(6):2087-2102. (Epidemiology)
  6. Ogden C, Carroll M. NCHS Health E-Stat: prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents-United States, trends 1963-1965 through 2007-2008. Available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_child_07_08/obesity_child_07_08.htm. Accessed April 29, 2012. (Survey)
  7. Robinson MK. Surgical treatment of obesity: weighing the facts. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(5):520-521. (Editorial)
  8. Ogden C, Carroll M, Curtin L, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA. 2006;295(13):1549-1555. (Survey; 8389 subjects)
  9. Michalsky M, Kramer RE, Fullmer MA, et al. Developing criteria for pediatric/adolescent bariatric surgery programs. Pediatrics. 2011;128(suppl 2):S65-S70.
  10. Barlow SE, Expert Committee. Expert Committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007;120(suppl 4):S164-S192. (Review)
  11. Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM, Scanlon KS. Does overweight in infancy persist through the preschool years? An analysis of CDC Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System data. Soz Praventivmed. 2003;48(3):161-167. (Prospective; 380,518 children)
  12. Jacobson JL, Jacobson AM. Jacobson: Psychiatric Secrets. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Hanley and Belfus, Inc.; 2001. (Book)
  13. Institute of Medicine. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. National Academies Press: Washington, DC; 2005. (Book)
  14. Modi AC, Loux TJ, Bell SK, et al. Weight-specific health-related quality of life in adolescents with extreme obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(10)2266-2271. (Multicenter; 145 patients)
  15. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003-2006. JAMA. 2008;299(20):2401-2405. (Survey; 8165 children)
  16. Sawyer MG, Harchak T, Wake M, et al. Four-year prospective study of BMI and mental health problems in young children. Pediatrics. 2011;128(4):677-684. (Prospective; 3363 children)
  17. Hampl SE, Carroll CA, Simon SD, et al. Resource utilization and expenditures for overweight and obese children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(1):11-14. (Retrospective; 8404 patients)
  18. Wang G, Dietz WH. Economic burden of obesity in youths aged 6 to 17 years: 1979-1999 [published correction appears in Pediatrics. 2002;109(6):1195]. Pediatrics. 2002;109(5):E81-E91. (Retrospective)
  19. Woolford SJ, Gebremariam A, Clark SJ, et al. Incremental hospital charges associated with obesity as a secondary diagnosis in children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15(7):1895-1901. (Retrospective; 771,274 subjects)
  20. Woolford SJ, Gebremariam A, Clark SJ, et al. Persistent gap of incremental charges for obesity as a secondary diagnosis in common pediatric hospitalizations. J Hosp Med. 2009;4(3):149-156. (Retrospective)
  21. Chenoweth D, Leutzinger J. The economic costs of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among California adults-2006. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2006;3:148-163. (Report)
  22. White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity. Solving the problem of childhood obesity within a generation. Available at: http://www.letsmove.gov/white-house-task-force-childhood-obesity-report-president. Accessed April 19, 2012. (Report)
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC grand rounds: childhood obesity in the United States. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(2):42-46. Available at: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6002a2.htm. Accessed April 19, 2012. (Grand rounds)
  24. Skelton JA, Cook SR, Aunger P, et al. Prevalance and trends of severe obesity among US children and adolescents. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9(5):322-329. (Retrospective; 12,384 children)
  25. Kleigman RM, Stanton B, St. Geme J, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2007. (Textbook)
  26. Wu TC, Chen PH. Health consequences of nutrition in childhood and early infancy. Pediatr Neonatol. 2009;50(4):135-142. (Review)
  27. Ziegler EE. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Nestl Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2006;58:51-59. (Review)
  28. Koletzko B, von Kries R, Closa R, et al. Can infant feeding choices modulate later obesity risk? Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1502S-1508S. (Multicenter, prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial; > 1000 patients)
  29. Leibowitz J. Concurring statement of Commissioner Jon Leibowitz. Marketing food to children and adolescents: a review of industry expenditures, activities, and self-regulation.[Federal Trade Commission Web site]. July 29, 2008. Available at http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2008/07/foodmkting.shtm. Accessed April 19, 2012. (Statement)
  30. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Children and watching TV. Facts for families. December 2011;No. 54. Available at: http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_watching_tv . Accessed April 28, 2012. (Website)
  31. Jordan AB. Heavy television viewing and childhood obesity. J Child Media. 2007;1(9):45-54. (Review)
  32. Dennison BA, Edmunds LS. The role of television in childhood obesity. Progr Pediatr Cardiol. 2008;25(2):191-197. (Review)
  33. Strasburger VC, Wilson BJ, Jordan AB. Children, Adolescents, and the Media. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2009. (Book)
  34. Strasburger VC, Council on Communications and Media. Children, adolescents, obesity, and the media. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):201-208. (American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement)
  35. Margeirsdottir HD, Larsen JR, Brunborg C, et al. Strong association between time watching television and blood glucose control in children and adolescents with type I diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(6):1567-1570. (Population-based; 538 children)
  36. Trust for America’s Health. F as in fat: how obesity policies are failing in America, 2008. Available at: http://healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity2008 Accessed April 19, 2012. (Report)
  37. Institute of Medicine. Strategies to prevent childhood obesity. Available at: http://www.rwjf.org/publichealth/product.jsp?id=47908. Accessed April 19, 2012. (Report)
  38. Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, et al. CDC growth charts: United States. Adv Data. 2000;314:1-27. (Retrospective)
  39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital and Health Statistics. 2002;11(246). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts. Accessed April 28, 2012. (Retrospective) 
  40. Young KL, Demeule M, Stuhlsatz K, et al. Identification and treatment of obesity as a standard of care for all patients in children’s hospitals. Pediatrics. 2011;128(suppl 2):S47-S50. (Survey; 19 children’s hospitals)
  41. Romieu I, Mannino DM, Redd SC, et al. Dietary intake, physical activity, body mass index, and childhood asthma in the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III). Pediat Pulmonol. 2004;38(1):31-42.
  42. Ginde AA, Santillan AA, Clark S, et al. Body mass index and acute asthma severity among children presenting to the emergency department. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(3):480-488. (Multicenter prospective cohort study, 44 EDs, 672 patients)
  43. Carroll CL, Christopher L, Smith SR, et al. Endotracheal intubation and pediatric status asthmaticus: site of original care affects treatment. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2007;8(2):91-95, (Retrospective cohort study; 251 patients)
  44. Carroll CL, Stoltz P, Raykov N, et al. Childhood overweight increases hospital admissions rates for asthma. Pediatrics. 2007;120(4):734-740. (Retrospective chart review; 884 patients)
  45. Hendrickson MA, O’Riordan MA, Arpilleda JC, et al. Effects of food insecurity on asthma outcomes in the pediatric emergency department. Pediat Emerg Care. 2010;26(11):823-829. (Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample; 127 families)
  46. Stingone JA, Ramirez OF, Svensson K, et al. Prevalence, demographics, and health outcomes of comorbid asthma and overweight in urban children. J Asthma. 2011;48(9):876-885 (Cross-sectional study; 5250 patients)
  47. Quinto KB, Zuraw BL, Poon KY. The association of obesity and asthma severity and control in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):964-969. (Retrospective cohort study)
  48. Forno E, Lescher R, Strunk R et al. Decreased response to inhaled steroids in overweight and obese asthmatic children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(3):741-749. (Prospective)
  49. Thomson CC, Clark S, Carmargo CA, et al. Body mass index and asthma severity among adults presenting to the emergency department. Chest. 2003;124(3):795-802. (Multicenter prospective cohort study; 26 EDs, 572 patients)
  50. Kwong KY, Rhandhawa I, Morphew T, et al. Ability to control persistent asthma in obese vs. non-obese children enrolled in an asthma-specific disease management program (Breathmobile). Asthma. 2006;43(9):661-666. (Prospective observation study)
  51. Lam YY, Chan EY, Ng DK et al. The correlation among obesity, apnea-hypopnea index and tonsil size in children. Chest. 2006;130(6):1751-1756. (Retrospective chart review)
  52. Arens R, Muzumdar H. Childhood obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(2);436-444. (Literature review)
  53. Nafiu OO, Green GE, Walton SW, et al. Obesity and risk of peri-operative complications in children presenting for adenotonsillectomy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:80-95. (Retrospective chart review)
  54. Tait AR, Voepel-Lewis T, Burke C, et al. Incidence and risk factors for perioperative adverse respiratory events in children who are obese. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:375-380. (Prospective observational study)
  55. El-Metainy S, Ghoneim T, Aridae E, et al. Incidence of perioperative adverse events in obese children undergoing elective general surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:359-363. (Prospective observational study)
  56. Srinvasa V, Nadkarni V, Helfaer MA. Childhood obesity and survival after in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Pediatrics. 2010;125(3):e481-e488. (Prospective multisite observational study; 1268 patients)
  57. Nafiu OO, Burke C, Cowan A, et al. Comparing peripheral venous access between obese and normal weight children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010;20(2):172-176.
  58. Nieman CT, Manacci CF, Super D, et al. Use of Broselow® Tape may result in the under-resuscitation of children. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;(13):1011-1019. (Cross-sectional descriptive study; 7671 patients)
  59. Bourdeau S, Copeland J, Milne WK. Accuracy of the Browselow® Tape in estimating the weight of First Nations children. Can J Rural Med. 2011;16(4):121-125. (Retrospective chart review)
  60. Veyckemans F. Child obesity and anaesthetic morbidity. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008;(21):308-312.
  61. Diekmann RA. The dilemma of paediatric drug dosing and equipment sizing in the era of patient safety. Emergency Medicine Australasia. 2007;(19): 490-493.
  62. Malaty HM, Abudayyeh S, Fraley K, et al. Recurrent abdominal pain in school children: effect of obesity and diet. Acta Paedatrica. 2007;96(4):572-576. (Prospective observational study)
  63. Pashankar DS, Loening-Bauke V. Increased prevalence of obesity in children with functional constipation evaluated in an academic medical center. Pediatrics. 2005;116(3):e377-e380 (Retrospective chart review; 719 patients)
  64. Koebnick C, Smith N, Black MH, et al. Pediatric obesity and gallstone disease: results from a cross-sectional study of over 510,000 youth. J Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;55(3):328-333. (Cross-sectional, >510,000 patients)
  65. Mehta S, Lopez M, Chumpitazi B, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease. Pediatrics. 2012;129(1):E82-E88. (Retrospective cross-sectional study; 404 patients)
  66. Abo A, Shannon M, Taylor G. The influence of body mass index on the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography in diagnosing appendicitis in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011;27:731-736. (Prospective observational study)
  67. Schuh S, Man C, Cheng A, et al. Predictors of non-diagnostic ultrasound scanning in children with suspected appendicitis. J Pediatr. 2011;158(1):112-118. (Prospective cohort study)
  68. Taylor ED, Theim KR, Mirch MC, et al. Orthopedic complications of overweight in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2006;117(6):2167-2174. (Retrospective chart review)
  69. Gettys FK, Jackson FB, Frick SL. Obesity in pediatric orthopedics. Orthop Clin North Am. 2011;42(1):95-105. (Review)
  70. Manoff EM, Banfly MB, Windell JJ. Relationship between body mass index and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Pediatric Orth. 2005;25(6):744-746. (Retrospective review)
  71. Pomeranz WJ, Timm NL, Gittelman MA. Injury patterns in obese versus nonobese children presenting to a pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics. 2010;125:681-685. (Retrospective chart review)
  72. Singer SA, Chamberlain J, Tosi L, et al. Association between upper extremity fracture and weight status in children. Ped Emerg Care. 2011;27(8):717-722. (Secondary data analysis from PRISA data)
  73. Rana AR, Michalsky MP, Teich S, et al. Childhood obesity: a risk factor for injuries observed at a level 1 trauma center. J. Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(8):1601-1605. (Retrospective chart review)
  74. Zonfrillo MR, Seiden JA, House EM, et al. The association of overweight and ankle injuries in children. Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2008;8(1):66-69. (Prospective case control study; 360 patients)
  75. Timm NL, Grupp-Phelan J, Ho M. Chronic ankle morbidity in obese children following an acute injury. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(1):33-36. (Prospective cohort study)
  76. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004. (White paper policy review)
  77. Koebnick C, Smith N, Jacobsen S, et al. When additional pounds become a health threat: childhood obesity as a risk for hypertension? Clin Med Res. 2012;10(3):184. (Cross-sectional observational study; 309,435 patients)
  78. Sorof JM, Lai D, Turner J, et al. Overweight, ethnicity, and the prevalence of hypertension in school-aged children. Pediatrics 2004.113 475-482. (Prospective observational study; > 5000 patients)
  79. Hanevold C, Waller J, Daniels S, et al. The effects of obesity, gender, and ethnic group on left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry in hypertensive children: a collaborative study of the International Pediatric Hypertension Association. Pediatrics. 2004;113(2):328-333. (Retrospective chart review; 129 patients)
  80. Phillips PH. Pediatric pseudotumor cerebri. International Opthalmology Clinics. 2012. 51-59. (Review)
  81. Balcer L, Liu GT, Forman S, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: relation of age and obesity in children. Neurology. 1999;52(4):870-872. (Case series; 45 patients)
  82. Brara SM, Koebnick C, Porter AH, et al. Pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension and extreme childhood obesity. J Pediatr. 2012;161(4):602-607. (Records review; 913,178 patients)
  83. Lumeng JC, Forest P, Appugliese DP, et al. Weight status as a predictor of being bullied in third through sixth grades. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e1301-e1307. (Cohort; 821 subjects)
  84. Strauss RS, Pollack HA. Social marginalization of overweight children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(8):746-752. (Cross-sectional cohort; 17,557 adolescents)
  85. Zeller MH, Reiter-Purtill J, Ramey C. Negative peer perceptions of obese children in the classroom environment. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(4):755-762. (Cross-sectional; 166 children)
  86. Ratcliff MB, Jenkins TM, Reiter-Purtill J, et al. Risk-taking behaviors of adolescents with extreme obesity: normative or not? Pediatrics. 2011;127(5):827-834. (Survey; 9079 children)
  87. Falkner NH, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, et al. Social, educational, and psychological correlates of weight status in adolescents. Obes Res. 2001;9(1):32-42. (Cross-sectional; 9448 children)
  88. Eaton DK, Lowry R, Brener ND, et al. Associations of body mass index and perceived weight with suicide ideation and suicide attempts among US high school students. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005:159(6):513-519. (Survey; 13,601 children)
  89. Swahn MH, Reynolds MR, Tice M, et al. Perceived overweight, BMI, and risk for suicide attempts: findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. J Adolesc Health. 2009;45(3):292-295. (Cross-sectional; 14,041 children)
  90. Butland B, Jebb S, Kopelman P, et al. Tackling obesities: future choices: project report [article online]. 2nd ed. Government Office for Science, UK government Foresight Programme, 2007. Available at: www.foresight.gov.uk/ourwork/activeprojects/obesity/keyinfo/index.asp. Accessed April 19, 2012. (Report)
  91. Oude LH, Baur L, Jansen H, et al. Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1)CD001872. (Systematic review; 64 randomized controlled trials)
  92. Atlantis E, Barnes EH, Fiatarone Singh MA. Efficacy of exercise for treating overweight in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30(7):1027-1040. (Review and meta-analysis of randomized trials; 481 children)
  93. Collins CE, Warren J, Neve M, et al. Measuring effectiveness of dietetic interventions in child obesity; a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(9):906-922. (Systematic review; 37 randomized controlled trials)
  94. Expert Panel. Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: summary report. Pediatrics. 2011;128(suppl 5):S213-S256. (Review)
  95. Savoye M, Nowicka P, Shaw M, et al. Long-term results of an obesity program in an ethnically diverse pediatric population. Pediatrics. 2011;127(3):402-410. (Randomized controlled trial; 209 children)
  96. National Health and Medical Research Council. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia; 2003. (Guidelines)
  97. Centre for Public Health Excellence at NICE (UK); National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK). Obesity: the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children. London, United Kingdom: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Guidance. 2006. (Guidelines)
  98. American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: individual-, family-, school-, and community-based interventions for pediatric overweight. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(6):925-945. (Systematic evidence-based analysis)
  99. Golan M. Parents as agents of change in childhood obesity: from research to practice. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006;1(2):66-76. (Review)
  100. Collins CE, Okely AD, Morgan PJ, et al. Parent diet modification, child activity, or both in obese children: an RCT. Pediatrics. 2011;127(4):619-627. (Blinded randomized controlled trial; 165 children)
  101. Patrick H, Nicklas TA, Hughes SO, et al. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children’s food consumption patterns. Appetite. 2005;44(2):243-249. (Survey; 231 caregivers)
  102. Rhee KE, Lumeng JC, Appugliese DP, et al. Parenting styles and overweight status in first grade. Pediatrics. 2006;117(6):2047-2054. (Cohort; 872 children)
  103. Magarey AM, Perry RA, Baur LA, et al. A parent-led family-focused treatment program for overweight children aged 5 to 9 years: the PEACH RCT. Pediatrics. 2011;127(2):214-222. (Single-blinded randomized controlled trial; 169 children)
  104. McCarron DA, Richartz N, Brigham S, et al. Community-based priorities for improving nutrition and physical activity in childhood. Pediatrics. 2010;126(5 suppl 2):S73-S89. (Cross-sectional; 2223 subjects)
  105. Troiano RP, Flegal KM. Overweight children and adolescents: description, epidemiology, and demographics. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 pt 2):498-504. (Survey)
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