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<< Angioedema In The Emergency Department: An Evidence-Based Review

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  71. Warrier MR, Copilevitz CA, Dykewicz MS, et al. Fresh frozen plasma in the treatment of resistant angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor angioedema. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004;92(5):573-575. (Case report)
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  80. * Bork K, Barnstedt SE. Treatment of 193 episodes of laryngeal edema with C1 inhibitor concentrate in patients with hereditary angioedema. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(5):714-718. (Prospective uncontrolled intervention; 42 patients)
  81. Craig TJ, Levy RJ, Wasserman RL, et al. Efficacy of human C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate compared with placebo in acute hereditary angioedema attacks. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(4):801-808. (Prospective randomized double-blind placebo controlled intervention trial; 125 patients)
  82. Craig TJ, Bewtra AK, Bahna SL, et al. C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate in 1085 Hereditary Angioedema attacks--final results of the I.M.P.A.C.T.2 study. Allergy. 2011;66(12):1604-1611. (Prospective open-label intervention trial; 57 patients)
  83. Baker J, Sheffer A, Christensen J, et al. Cinryze Replacement Therapy In Hereditary Angioedema and Pregnancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(2):S106. (Abstract: Prospective uncontrolled intervention; 7 patients)
  84. Zuraw BL, Busse PJ, White M, et al. Nanofiltered C1 inhibitor concentrate for treatment of hereditary angioedema. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(6):513-522. (Part 1, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial; 68 patients; Part 2, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover intervention trial; 22 patients)
  85. Riedl MA, Hurewitz DS, Levy R, et al. Nanofiltered C1 esterase inhibitor (human) for the treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema: an open-label trial. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;108(1):49-53. (Prospective open-label intervention trial; 113 patients)
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  89. Schneider L, Lumry W, Vegh A, et al. Critical role of kallikrein in hereditary angioedema pathogenesis: a clinical trial of ecallantide, a novel kallikrein inhibitor. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120(2):416-422. (Prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled ascending-dose intervention trial; 48 patients)
  90. Lumry W, Li H, Schneider L, et al. Results of a repeat-dosing study of intravenous and subcutaneous administration of ecallantide (DX-88), a recombinant plasma kallikrein inhibitor, in patients with hereditary angioedema. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;98(Supp 1):A29. (Abstract: Prospective uncontrolled tiered-dosing intervention trial; 77 patients)
  91. Levy R, McNeil D, Li H, et al. Results of a 2-stage, phase 3 pivotal trial, EDEMA3: a study of subcutaneous DX-88 (ecallantide), a plasma kallikrein inhibitor, in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(2):S103. (Abstract: 2-stage prospective intervention trial; Stage 1, placebo-controlled, 72 patients; Stage 2, open-label, 67 patients)
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  94. * Lumry WR, Li HH, Levy RJ, et al. Results from FAST-3: a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of subcutaneous icatibant in patients with acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):AB1. (Abstract: Prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial; 88 patients)
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