<< Rhabdomyolysis: Advances In Diagnosis And Treatment (Trauma)


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Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Heymsfield SB, Arteaga C, McManus C, et al. Measurement of muscle mass in humans: validity of the 24-hour urinary creatinine method. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37:478-494. (Review)
  2. Better OS, Stein JH. Early management of shock and prophylaxis of acute renal failure in traumatic rhabdomyolysis. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:825-859. (Review)
  3. Ron D, Taitelman U, Michaelson M, et al. Prevention of acute renal failure in traumatic rhabdomyolysis. Arch Intern Med. 1984;144:277-280. (Prospective case series; 7 patients)
  4. Akmal M, Valdin JR, McCarron MM, et al. Rhabdomyolysis with and without acute renal failure in patients with phencyclidine intoxication. Am J Nephrol. 1981;1:91-96. (Retrospective case-control; 25 patients)
  5. Cadnapaphornchai P, Taher S, McDonald FD. Acute drug-associated rhabdomyolysis: an examination of its diverse renal manifestations and complications. Am J Med Sci. 1980;280:66-72. (Retrospective case-control; 30 patients)
  6. Eneas JF, Schoenfeld PY, Humphreys MH. The effect of infusion of mannitol-sodium bicarbonate on the clinical course of myoglobinuria. Arch Intern Med. 1979;139:801-805. (Retrospective observational; 20 patients)
  7. Grossman RA, Hamilton RW, Morse BM, et al. Nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. N Engl J Med. 1974;291:807-811. (Prospective observational; 44 patients)
  8. Koffler A, Friedler RM, Massry SG. Acute renal failure due to nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Ann Intern Med. 1976;85:23-28. (Retrospective observational; 21 patients)
  9. * Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Kelleher SP. The spectrum of rhabdomyolysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 1982;61:141-152. (Prospective case series; 77 patients)
  10. Oda J, Tanaka H, Yoshioka T, et al. Analysis of 372 patients with crush syndrome caused by the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. J Trauma. 1997;42:470-475; discussion 475-476. (Retrospective case series; 372 patients)
  11. Ward MM. Factors predictive of acute renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:1553-1557. (Retrospective cohort; 157 patients)
  12. Bywaters EG, Beall D. Crush injuries with impairment of renal function. Br Med J. 1941;1:427-432. (Case report)
  13. Giannoglou GD, Chatzizisis YS, Misirli G. The syndrome of rhabdomyolysis: pathophysiology and diagnosis. Eur J Intern Med. 2007;18:90-100. (Review)
  14. Ellinas PA, Rosner F. Rhabdomyolysis: report of eleven cases. J Natl Med Assoc. 1992;84:617-624. (Retrospective case series; 11 patients)
  15. Melli G, Chaudhry V, Cornblath DR. Rhabdomyolysis: an evaluation of 475 hospitalized patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2005;84:377-385. (Retrospective chart review; 475 patients)
  16. Bethoux F, Calmels P, Aigoin JL, et al. Heterotopic ossification and rhabdomyolysis. Paraplegia. 1995;33:164-166. (Case report)
  17. Szerlip HM, Weiss J, Singer I. Profound hyperkalemia without electrocardiographic manifestations. Am J Kidney Dis. 1986;7:461-465. (Case series; 2 patients)
  18. Akmal M, Massry SG. Reversible hepatic dysfunction associated with rhabdomyolysis. Am J Nephrol. 1990;10:49-52. (Retrospective case series; 34 patients)
  19. Zager RA, Gamelin LM. Pathogenetic mechanisms in experimental hemoglobinuric acute renal failure. Am J Physiol. 1989;256:F446-455. (Prospective randomized animal model; 25 subjects)
  20. Oken DE, Arce ML, Wilson DR. Glycerol-induced hemoglobinuric acute renal failure in the rat. I. Micropuncture study of the development of oliguria. J Clin Invest. 1966;45:724-735. (Prospective; animal model)
  21. Reis ND, Michaelson M. Crush injury to the lower limbs. Treatment of the local injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68:414-418. (Prospective, cohort;15 patients)
  22. Better OS. The crush syndrome revisited (1940-1990). Nephron. 1990;55:97-103. (Review)
  23. Nath KA, Norby SM. Reactive oxygen species and acute renal failure. Am J Med. 2000;109:665-678. (Review)
  24. * Moore KP, Holt SG, Patel RP, et al. A causative role for redox cycling of myoglobin and its inhibition by alkalinization in the pathogenesis and treatment of rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31731-31737. (Prospective, randomized controlled animal model; 20 subjects)
  25. * Bosch X, Poch E, Grau JM. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:62-72. (Review)
  26. * Homsi E, Barreiro MF, Orlando JM, et al. Prophylaxis of acute renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis. Ren Fail. 1997;19:283-288. (Retrospective; 15 patients)
  27. * Brown CV, Rhee P, Chan L, et al. Preventing renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis: do bicarbonate and mannitol make a difference? J Trauma. 2004;56:1191-1196. (Retrospective; 2083 patients)
  28. * Cho YS, Lim H, Kim SH. Comparison of lactated Ringer’s solution and 0.9% saline in the treatment of rhabdomyolysis induced by doxylamine intoxication. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:276-280. (Prospective randomized single-blind; 28 patients)
  29. Morgan TJ. The meaning of acid-base abnormalities in the intensive care unit: part III -- effects of fluid administration. Crit Care. 2005;9:204-211. (Review)
  30. Slater MS, Mullins RJ. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric renal failure in trauma and surgical patients: a review. J Am Coll Surg. 1998;186:693-716. (Review)
  31. Lane R, Phillips M. Rhabdomyolysis. BMJ. 2003;327:115-116. (Editorial comment)
  32. Better OS, Rubinstein I, Winaver JM, et al. Mannitol therapy revisited (1940-1997). Kidney Int. 1997;52:886-894. (Review)
  33. Visweswaran P, Massin EK, Dubose TD Jr, et al. Mannitol-induced acute renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997;8:1028-1033. (Case report)
  34. Beetham R. Biochemical investigation of suspected rhabdomyolysis. Ann Clin Biochem. 2000;37( Pt 5):581-587. (Review)
  35. Lameire N, Vanholder R, Van Biesen W. Loop diuretics for patients with acute renal failure: helpful or harmful? JAMA. 2002;288:2599-2601. (Review)
  36. Mehta RL, Pascual MT, Soroko S, et al. Diuretics, mortality, and nonrecovery of renal function in acute renal failure. JAMA. 2002;288:2547-2553. (Retrospective cohort study; 552 patients)
  37. Sever MS, Vanholder R, Lameire N. Management of crush-related injuries after disasters. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1052-1063. (Review)
  38. Davidov T, Hong JJ, Malcynski JT. Novel use of acetazolamide in the treatment of rhabdomyolysis-induced myoglobinuric renal failure. J Trauma. 2006;61:213-215. (Case report)
  39. Thondebhavi Subbaramaiah M, Sapsford D, Banham-Hall E. Acetazolamide as an adjunct to sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of rhabdomyolysis. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010;38:398. (Case report)
  40. Khan FY, Ibrahim W. Rosuvastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis in a low-risk patient: a case report and review of the literature. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2009;4:1-3. (Case report, review)
  41. Abul-Ezz SR, Walker PD, Shah SV. Role of glutathione in an animal model of myoglobinuric acute renal failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1991;88:9833-9837. (Prospective animal model)
  42. Ronco C. Extracorporeal therapies in acute rhabdomyolysis and myoglobin clearance. Crit Care. 2005;9:141-142. (Commentary)
  43. Naka T, Jones D, Baldwin I, et al. Myoglobin clearance by super high-flux hemofiltration in a case of severe rhabdomyolysis: a case report. Crit Care. 2005;9:R90-R95. (Case report)
  44. Vanholder R, Sever MS, Erek E, et al. Rhabdomyolysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000;11:1553-1561. (Review)
  45. Tountas CP, Bergman RA. Tourniquet ischemia: ultrastructural and histochemical observations of ischemic human muscle and of monkey muscle and nerve. J Hand Surg Am. 1977;2:31-37. (Prospective animal and human model)
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Ram Parekh

Publication Date

March 2, 2012

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